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Recent IELTS Essays from real IELTS Exams

Find here a list of most recent IELTS essays , most of the essays have come in recent IELTS exams in 2019 and 2020.By practicing with these ESSAY QUESTIONS from recent IELTS exams, you will have sharpened your idea-generation skills.

Recent IELTS Essay Questions (2020)

Hey! It is so important that when you sit down to practice IELTS writing, you only use questions that are “genuine”. This means using either questions that come from the IELTS Cambridge 1 – 15 series or those that have been created by an exam writer, However, many students like to practice recent IELTS essay questions i.e. topics that have been reported by recent test-takers.

Check following list of IELTS Essays , most of the statements have appeared in recent IELTS exams.

Academic IELTS Essay Questions (2020)

Click on the statement to read sample essay answers – City Coaching Centre , Malerkotla

  1. Some people believe that students should be taught international news as a subject at school. Others feel that this would be a waste of valuable school time. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  2. Some people believe that it is possible for a country to be economically successful and have a clean environment. Others argue that these two aims are not compatible. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  3. Some people believe that having a conversation on a mobile phone in a public or crowded place should be banned. Others feel that we should be able to talk wherever we like. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  4. Some believe that charitable organisations should help people no matter where they live. Others argue that charities should only help those living in the country where the charity is based. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  5. People across the world are more similar than they are different. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  6. It was predicted that people in the 21st century would have much more free time than in the past. To what extent has this prediction come true?
  7. Some people say that too much time and resources are spent on the protection of wild animals and birds. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  8. The only reason to work hard is to earn money. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  9. The most effective way to solve the current traffic and pollution problems in cities is to encourage people to move from the suburbs or countryside into the city centre. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  10. Some people think that in order to produce a happy society, it is necessary to ensure that there is only a small difference between the earnings of the richest and poorest. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  11. Recent advances in air travel have focused only on those sitting in upper class and have left other passengers with no benefits. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  12. Some people believe that countries should produce the food to feed their population themselves and import as little as possible. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  13. Some children find some school subjects difficult (for example maths or philosophy), so these subjects should be optional rather than compulsory. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  14. In recent years, television has contributed most to changing people’s quality of life . To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  15. In the future it may be necessary for us to live on another planets. For this reason, some people believe that we should spend money now researching planets that could be a possible home, such as Mars. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  16. Some cities create extra housing by building tall buildings. Other cities do this by building on wide areas of land. Which do you think is the best solution to the problem of housing?
  17. Many people continue to use cars and motorcycles even though they know that they are bad for the environment. Why is this? What can be done to reduce the use of these vehicles?
  18. In many cities the construction of new houses and office buildings is not controlled. This leads to people building in whatever style they want without thinking about design. Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages? 
  19. Young people are often influenced by their peers. Do the advantages of peer pressure outweigh the disadvantages?
  20. Many developing countries place a lot of importance on tourism. Why is this? Do you think that this is a positive or negative development?
  21. In the modern world, it is possible to shop, work, and communicate online without any face-to-face contact with other people. Is this a positive or negative development?
  22. In the future, there will be a higher proportion of older people than younger people in many countries. Why is this? Is this a positive or negative development?
  23. Handwriting today is less formal than it was in the past. What are the causes of this change? Is this a positive or negative development?
  24. Some people believe that if an individual behaves in an anti-social manner, such as committing a crime, then society is to blame. What are the causes of anti-social behaviour? Who do you think is responsible?
  25. People across the world are more similar than they are different. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  26. It was predicted that people in the 21st century would have much more free time than in the past. To what extent has this prediction come true?
  27. The most effective way to solve the current traffic and pollution problems in cities is to encourage people to move from the suburbs or countryside into the city centre. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  28. Some people believe that having interviews is the best way to find new employees for a company. Others say that there are better alternative ways to appoint employees. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  29. Some people believe that individuals are born with leadership skills. Others say that these skills can be developed with experience. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  30. Some people believe that the government should financially support older members of society who have retired. Others feel that these people should pay to support themselves. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  31. Some people believe that teenagers should study all school subjects. Others argue that they should focus on only the subjects that they are good at or find most interesting. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  32. In some cultures, older people are valued most highly. In other cultures, youth is valued more. Discuss both views and give your opinion as to which age should be most valued.
  33. Some people believe that individuals are responsible for their own personal happiness. Others argue that happiness can be affected by other factors. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  34. Some believe that charitable organisations should help people no matter where they live. Others argue that charities should only help those living in the country where the charity is based. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  35. Some educators believe that international school exchange visits are important for teenage children. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  36. Too much money is spent on repairing old buildings instead of constructing new ones. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  37. The international community must act immediately to ensure that all countries reduce their consumption of fossil fuels, such as gas and oil. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  38. Spoken communication is always more powerful than written communication. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  39. The only reason to work hard is to earn money. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  40. Some people think that in order to produce a happy society, it is necessary to ensure that there is only a small difference between the earnings of the richest and poorest. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  41. Since most information about culture and history can be found online, museums are no longer needed. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  42. Scientific research should be funded by governments rather than commercial organisations. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  43. Some children find some particular school subjects difficult (for example maths or philosophy), so these subjects should be optional rather than compulsory. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  44. In recent years, television has contributed most to changing people’s quality of life. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  45. Many people depend on cars in their day-to-day life (for example, to drive to work). However, unrestricted car use has led to a number of problems. What are these problems? Should individuals be discouraged from using cars in order to reduce them?
  46. People today rarely interact with their neighbours, and this is having a harmful effect on local communities. What are the possible causes of this trend? What can be done to address it?
  47. Despite the environmental concerns raised by scientists, people are still not changing their lifestyles. Why is this? What can be done to encourage people to protect the environment more?
  48. In some countries, criminal trials are shown to the public on television. Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?
  49. In the modern world, it is possible to shop, work, and communicate online without any face-to-face contact with other people. Is this a positive or negative development?
  50. Nowadays many celebrities receive higher salaries than senior politicians. Why is this?  Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  51. Throughout history, people have dreamed of living in a perfect society but nobody has agreed on what an ideal society would look like. What do you think is the most important element needed to make a society perfect? How can the ideal society be achieved?
  52. Some people believe that physical fitness of strong individuals and teams is the reason for most sports achievements. Others, however, think that mental attitude is more important. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  53. Many governments think that economic progress is their most important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  54. When cars and cyclists use the same roads, there are often problems. Why is this case? What are the solutions?
  55. More and more people are relying on the private car as their major means of transportation, Describe some of the problems over reliance on cars can cause, and suggest at least one possible solution. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.
  56. The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  57. Some people think that strict punishments for driving offences are the key to reducing traffic accidents. Others, however, believe that other measures would be more effective in improving road safety. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  58. Today many children spend a lot of time playing computer games and little time on sports. Why is it? Is it a positive or negative development?

General Training IELTS Essay Questions (2020)- City Coaching Centre, Malerkotla

  1. Some people think it is good to raise children in a city. Others argue that it is better for children to grow up in the countryside. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  2. Some people prefer the lifestyle and activities offered when living in a cold environment. Others prefer a hot environment. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  3. Some people believe academic success depends mostly on having a good teacher. Others argue that it is the attitude of the student that matters most. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  4. Some people prefer being physically active in their free time. Others think it is better to choose hobbies that are mentally challenging (such as crosswords and chess). Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  5. Some people believe that it is best to do the same type of work throughout your life. Others feel that it is beneficial to change jobs often. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  6. Some people believe that the government should be responsible for taking care of disadvantaged members of society (for example, the unemployed or those who are homeless). Do you agree or disagree?
  7. The age at which people have children has risen. Some people believe that this may cause problems for both these families and the societies they live in. What is your opinion about this?
  8. Some people believe that only employees who have worked at a company for a long time deserve to be promoted to a higher position. What is your opinion about this?
  9. Some people believe that all students should be made to have an unpaid job in their free time. Do you agree or disagree?
  10. Many people think that the most important things in life are free (i.e. they cannot be bought). Do you agree or disagree?
  11. Every year more and more waste and pollution are created. How are common people affected by this trend? What can individuals do to address the situation?
  12. The youth crime rate is rising rapidly in many countries. What are the reasons for this trend? What can parents and teachers do to solve it?
  13. In some countries, people prefer to rent a house than buy one. What are the advantages and disadvantages of renting a property?
  14. In many countries traditional customs are being lost. Why do you think this is? What can parents and schools do to keep traditional customs alive?
  15. Nowadays people are less fit and healthy than they were in the past, which could affect their long term health. Why do you think this is? What can be done to solve this problem?
  16. Young people today are often less polite and show less respect than previous generations. Why do you think this is? What can be done to solve this problem?
  17. Some people today struggle to use modern electronic technology such as smartphones and computers. Why do you think this is? What can be done to solve this problem?
  18. Many university students have part-time jobs while they study. Is this a good or a bad thing?
  19. In many countries it is common for parents to give their children pocket money. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this practice?
  20. Some people decide to move to another country when they retire. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this practice?
  21. In the past, people wore clothes that were unique to their own culture. Today, people all over the world wear the same types of clothes. Is this trend a positive or negative development?
  22. The world of work is changing rapidly and people cannot depend on having the same job or the same working conditions for life. What are the possible causes of this rapid change? How can people prepare for work in the future?
  23. Many people are choosing to move to cities. Why is this happening? Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?
  24. Some sports are extremely dangerous for those who play them. Why do people participate in such sports? What measures could they take to minimise the risks involved?
  25. Most companies use interviews to hire new employees. What other ways could be used? What do you think is the best way?
  26. Adults today do not do enough exercise. Some people believe that showing major sports events like the Olympics or the Football World Cup on television encourages people to exercise. Others argue that there are better ways to encourage adults to move more. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  27. Some people believe that it is best to do the same type of work throughout your life. Others feel that it is beneficial to change jobs often. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  28. Some people think that it is good for younger people to make their own decisions about their day to day life (such as what they wear or eat). Others feel that these decisions should be made with the help of their parents. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  29. Some people believe that it is important to spend time developing a successful career. Others argue that it is more important to spend time with friends and family than at work. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  30. Some parents believe that children today spend too much time looking at screens. Others argue that this is necessary in the modern world. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  31. Some people think that schools should give prizes for academic successes. Others argue that it is more important for schools to give prizes for other achievements (for example, for sports, music and behaviour). Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  32. Some people believe that children should be involved in educational activities in their free time. Others argue that this puts too much academic pressure on a child. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  33. Some people believe that all company decisions should be made by managers. Others feel that it is better to include employees when making decisions. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  34. Some people think that the government should put a tax on unhealthy food to encourage people to eat more healthily. Do you agree or disagree?
  35. There are many benefits for young people who travel to other countries. Do you agree or disagree?
  36. Some believe that modern inventions have brought more problems than benefits.  Do you agree or disagree?
  37. It is better if an extended family (for example, aunts, uncles, grandparents) is involved in a child’s upbringing than just parents alone.  Do you agree or disagree?
  38. Some people believe that schools should teach children how to grow and cook food. What is your opinion about this?
  39. Some people believe that there should be a law which prevents young people under the age of 18 being outside after midnight. Do you agree or disagree?
  40. Nowadays, people are not as fit and active as they used to be in the past which creates health issues in the long-run. Why do you think this is? What measures can be taken to solve this problem?
  41. The amount of violence in computer games, TV programmes and other leisure activities has increased and, as a result, parents are worried about the effect this is having on their children. How harmful is this development? What can be done to address this situation?
  42. Nowadays, when people have to travel abroad for work, many take their family members with them on the business trip. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual and his or her family members who travel together?
  43. In some countries, people prefer to rent a house than buy one. What are the advantages and disadvantages of renting a property?
  44. Nowadays people have many consumer goods in their home (such as a refrigerator or washing machine). Is this trend a positive or negative development?
  45. Most children have to complete homework when they are at school. Is this a good or a bad thing?
  46. Many university students have part-time jobs while they study. Is this a good or a bad thing?
  47. In some countries, young people leave home as soon as they finish school. Is this a good or a bad thing?
  48. In the past, people wore clothes that were unique to their own culture. Today, people all over the world wear the same types of clothes. Is this trend a positive or negative development?
  49. The world of work is changing rapidly and people cannot depend on having the same job or the same working conditions for life. What are the possible causes of this rapid change? How can people prepare for work in the future?
  50. Many people are choosing to move to cities. Why is this happening? Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?

By practicing with these ESSAY QUESTIONS, you will have sharpened your idea-generation skills. Plus, you can help me by adding any questions that you can remember from a recent IELTS exam in the comments below.

If you want to know how your IELTS essay will be marked by the examiner and how you can avoid the errors the check click here.

Solved

1)    Some people believe that students should be taught international news as a subject at school. Others feel that this would be a waste of valuable school time. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

OR

Some people think that secondary school children should study international news as one of the school subjects. Other people think that it is a waste of valuable school time. What do you think? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

The potential for the global media to shape the views of today’s youth is considerable. However, while some commentators think that the media has no place within secondary education; other analysts defend the idea that international news should be studied at school. In this essay, I shall examine a number of studies which show that both viewpoints are, to some degree, justified.

To begin with, the global media undoubtedly enriches teenagers understanding of contemporary affairs. This is because television reports provide concise summaries of international affairs. For example, a study run by Oxford sociologists showed that the media heavily influenced teenagers’ knowledge of contemporary affairs. Since any secondary school education would be incomplete without an awareness of such events, it is therefore clear that the media can play a vital role in assisting education.

On the other hand, many critics argue that teenagers are negatively affected by the global media’s focus on wars and civil unrest. This is because exposure to violence often leads to depression. For example, recent surveys have discovered that depressed teenagers usually cite the dismal state of the world as a source of their depression. Since mental health is an important objective of secondary education, it is therefore questionable whether the study of international news wouldn’t be a destructive and wasteful use of school resource.

In conclusion, it should be clear that there are reasons for and against the study of news at school. Thus if media studies are to enter schools in the future, schools will have to think about how negative aspects of the news can be decreased, and positive aspects maximized.

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2)    Some people believe that it is possible for a country to be economically successful and have a clean environment. Others argue that these two aims are not compatible. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Sample 1

There are different standpoints when it comes to environmental problem. While some people believe that it is virtually impossible for a nation to be successful in both economic and environment, I personally think that is totally feasible.

First, it is understandable why many people are skeptical. In numerous developed countries, the authorities are willingly to make a trade-off that they choose to boost the economy and endure the environmental degradation. This is owing to the inevitable fact that the upsurge of economic corresponds with the increase of the factories, which daily release a huge amount of carbon dioxide emissions and toxic chemicals, which engender natural depletion. In addition, when people are received better facilities, they increasingly become lazy and live a sedentary life. As a substitute of cooking by themselves, people prefer food-miles shipped by motorbikes that produce exhaust fumes which is one of the most significant contributors to global warming.

On the other hand, I argue that it is possible for many countries to obtain the clean environment while still making profits. In many wealthy countries, as well as developing the economy, environmentally-friendly technology is ultimate priority of the government besides achieving economic goals. Switzerland, for instance, enforces the law of requiring wastewater treatment system and emissions filter in all the factories in the country and monitors them closely that play a key role in reaching both environmental and economical success. Furthermore, people in developed countries have the sense of environmental protection. Green movement could be broadened easily if both the national and local authorities have appropriate propaganda campaigns about alleviating environmental problems to the citizens.

In conclusion, I believe despite the fact that there are difficulties to acquire both a clean eco-system and an economical flourish, it is still a reachable goal.

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Sample 2

Economy and environment have always been a hot-debated topic of every country due to the fact that they are the main factors exerting influence on the preservation of the country existence and its citizens living standard. Some people argue that it is unsustainable that economic development and environment protection can be simultaneously attained. However, I hold a strong belief that this is an achievable goal to be accomplished.

Economic expansion plays an instrumental part in the growth of one country as other factors depend on the country financial situation. However, a prosperous economy is associated with posing unavoidable risks of doing harm to the fragile environment by poisonous smokes released from manufacturing operations to the air. For instance, in this industrialization age, most inevitable products come from manufactures where disposing colossal amount of venomous emissions and chemical wastes, consequently, products fabrication will lead to rapid exploitation of human living and the loss of other cultures natural habitats.

On the other hand, thanks to significant accomplishments in advanced technology, it is reasonable to believe that the government feasibly can maintain economic growth and preserve the environment simultaneously. By initial investment in figuring and using alternative energy resources that is environmentally friendly such as solar energy instead of fossil fuels, considerable amount of harmful emissions and the level of disposed contamination can be alleviated. This has been proven by several countries which have succeeded in applied this incredible method into realistic such as Switzerland and Singapore, where not only living environment is extremely clean but economic development is also noticeably emphasized, especially tourism, an economical field that has earned enormous profit for the countries.

In summary, difficulties in concurrently maintaining economic expansion and environment preservation are not scarce but with appropriate method application, they will conceivably be actualized in the near future.

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3)    Some people believe that having a conversation on a mobile phone in a public or crowded place should be banned. Others feel that we should be able to talk wherever we like. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Mobiles have made communication easier and more convenient. However, sometimes people talking on their mobile phone disturb the surrounding environment and the general public. Because of this reason, several people have opined that the use of mobile phones should be banned in public places like libraries, shops and on buses and trains. I agree with this view.

When people traveling on a bus or train make or receive calls on their mobile phone, they are causing a great deal of disturbance to other passengers. In order to ensure that the listener can hear properly, the caller often talks too loudly. This can disturb fellow passengers who may be reading or sleeping. And when people drive a vehicle talk on their mobiles, it can result in fatal accidents. This cannot be allowed at all.

Libraries are another place where the use of mobile phones should be banned or discouraged. Library is meant for reading and thinking. If people use mobile phones when they are inside the library, they will unnecessarily disturb other people reading or studying there. By simply banning mobiles in public places, we cannot perhaps solve this problem. We also need to create awareness about the proper and polite way to use mobiles in public places.

Mobile phones have become an integral part of our lives. In fact, most of us can’t even imagine a life without our mobiles. They are also a blessing in emergencies. In such situations, their use must be permitted.

To conclude, there is a real need to ban the use of mobile phones in public places. It is true that they are a necessity and have enriched our lives in many ways, but their excessive use in public places must be discouraged at any cost.

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4)    Some believe that charitable organisations should help people no matter where they live. Others argue that charities should only help those living in the country where the charity is based. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

According to some people, charities should help only those people who live within their national boundaries; however, others opine that they should provide assistance everywhere. In my opinion, it depends on the mission of the organization and its resources. Well-funded charities can offer help everywhere; those that are short of resources should prioritize their own people.

On the one hand, if NGOs decide to serve only the people of their country, we cannot quite blame them. After all, their resources come from the local people and as such when this money is utilized for the benefit of the locals, it is fully justified. Charitable work focusing on local issues also satisfies donors who are eager to see a resolution to the problems affecting their country or community. Also, many charitable organizations have limited resources. For example, charities operating in poor countries are often short of resources. They cannot provide help abroad. If they attempt to do this, they will only antagonize the local community that funds their initiatives.

On the other hand, there are many international organizations flush with cash and other resources. For instance, UNICEF is an international organization which aims to aid children worldwide. They receive funding from affluent countries and hence they are quite capable of offering assistance in any part of the world. There are several such organizations that have the backing of developed countries. It is their moral and constitutional responsibility to provide assistance to needy people everywhere.

To conclude, charities should work with the objective of helping the needy. Who they should help or where they should provide help depends on their financial situation and objectives.

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5)    People across the world are more similar than they are different. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Thanks to the advent of globalization, international corporations have opened their branches in every corner of the world. Consequently, the same products are available everywhere and this has made people and countries look the same. In my opinion, this is not exactly a positive change. I will support my stand with valid arguments in the following paragraphs.

First of all, when people everywhere buy the same products, cultural identities disappear. For example, in Shanghai, many foreign clothing companies sell T-shirts to local residents. As a result, few local people wear traditional clothes like qipao now and the traditional clothing industry is dying. Many young people cannot even identify their traditional clothing and fewer people know how to make traditional clothes. If the government took actions to help the traditional clothing industry, people would be able to keep their cultural heritage and craftsmen working in this sector would not lose their livelihood. Unfortunately, that is not the case and locals are forgetting their culture and ethnicity.

On top of this, buying the same stuff everywhere is bad for local economies and the environment. Oftentimes, products are imported from foreign countries and have to travel thousands of miles before they reach the end user. This does not help the environment or the local craftsmen. The only beneficiaries are multinational companies. Small businesses and manufactures cannot compete with them and quickly lose their market share and there is less demand for skilled workers who can produce goods with local features. Consequently, people employed in traditional sectors are becoming jobless. For instance, the young generation prefers fast food rather than traditional Chinese food. The market is shrunk for these people who make a living by selling traditional Chinese foods. Likewise, carpenters, cobblers, potters are all becoming jobless in the current scenario.

To sum up, the disadvantages overweigh the benefits when people begin to buy the same goods everywhere and different regions become more and more similar. In this scenario, the cultural heritage will be destroyed and the unemployment rate will rise.

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6)    It was predicted that people in the 21st century would have much more free time than in the past. To what extent has this prediction come true?

Many had predicted that with the assistance of automated machines, people would enjoy more leisure time in the 21st century. Paradoxically, the fast paced life in the 21st century is bearing testimony that this predication did not come true.

In my opinion, it was assumed by our ancestors that machines would reduce the workload of people but unfortunately this prediction turned out to be erroneous. Advanced technology such as computers has certainly made people more efficient but they have also made people want to accomplish more in less time.

As these machines are tireless they put an enormous pressure on human beings to compete with them. In this fierce competition, no time is left to relax and unwind. For instance, earlier people used to work fixed hours; nowadays people even work from home through the internet exhausting their valuable time.

Another potential reason is that modern people have more desires to acquire luxuries and comforts in their life. For this, they run a superficial race and work round-the-clock leaving no time for them. Recently, a magazine published an article about the long working hours of people in the USA. It showed how people had become slaves of their work.

In conclusion, I firmly reiterate that people who forecasted about long relaxation time in the current times were short sighted and could not foresee the real impact of technological innovations. Instead of enjoying their free time, people are now more engrossed in their work to satisfy their insatiable needs.

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7

Some people say that too much time and resources are spent on the protection of wild animals and birds. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Some people argue that governments and international non-governmental organizations have spent too much effort in the conservation of wildlife and birds. I strongly disagree with the idea and I would argue that protecting the existence of wildlife is also saving the earth where human inhabit in.

To begin with, it is obvious that wild animals play as indispensable role in biology balance which distributes our living environment. The lack of any species will lead to the loss of the balance which harms our lives. Thus, the reserves designing to protect endangered species are essential. One animal living in the wild is a link of a big chain that if one link is disappeared, the whole chain will be affected. For example, if the tiny organisms which are the main food of whales to be extinct, the whale eventually will be dead because of shortened sources of food.

In addition, the main reason threatens the wild definitely is human activities in the economy, construction, and beauty sectors. Human should be responsible for destroying animals’ habitat and hunting rare animals. In fact, the conservation job would be much easier if human concern more about the environment instead of doing harmful activities to the wild because of profit. For example, many smuggles who hunt elephant for its valuable ivory which can be sold with high price in the black market.

In conclusion, it is not true that people are spending too many resources in preserving wild animals. In my opinion, wildlife and birds especially endangered species should be protected as much as possible because of their vital role in human’s life.

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8

The only reason to work hard is to earn money. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

It is a universal truth that people born with the purpose and they have to work hard in order to realize those purposes they born with. However, many adepts assert that the only reason people work hard is to earn more money only. However, my inclination discord the statement, and can be support by the following arguments.

To commence with, it is an evident that as the world economy has grown, the standard of living has been improved a lot. Urbanization and globalization has worked as a fuel in the fire behind the increased consumerism in the human life. Now, in the competition of availing luxury to the life, many people work hard and survey depicts that the rate of people with the goal of high earning is quite a high. However, every coinage has two sides.

If we think in the broader view, we will find there are many other people who have different aims in their life rather earning money. There are many athletes and artists who work hard to earn the respect for their nation. For instance, Ms. P.V. Sindhu has out her immense efforts to earn a silver medal during the RIO olympic 2016. There are many artists like A.R. Rehman who had work hard to get recognition of our nation on world map.

Nonetheless, History of mankind can depict many examples of hard work to serve the humanity. There are many people who have stake their life behind several noble causes. To exemplify, Mahatma gandhi and other martyrs who fought hard for the freedom of India. Mother teresa who revered her work for the poor in India. There is endless list of such idols in history and many more are even existed today. One of the great example is Sri sri ravishankar who is considered as an humanitarian, spiritual leader and ambassador of peace.

By summing up all above arguments, we can say that money is the source of survival and luxury but It is considered to be slightly overrated saying that nowadays earning money is remained the only goal of people behind hard work.

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9

The most effective way to solve the current traffic and pollution problems in cities is to encourage people to move from the suburbs or countryside into the city centre. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Some people argue that the best solution to the traffic and pollution woes in cities is to encourage suburban and rural people to relocate to urban areas. I do not agree with this view because cities are already bulging at the seams. If more people move to the city, it will only worsen the situation.

Encouraging rural and suburban people to relocate to the cities will certainly help to reduce traffic congestion and pollution if the cities can accommodate them. This is because most people living in suburbs have jobs in the city. Consequently, every morning they travel all the way from their home to their office in the city causing traffic jams along the way. Vehicles caught in traffic emit more poisonous gases to the atmosphere and thus increase air pollution. By contrast, if they live in a place near their office in the city, they can reduce their travelling time and distance. This will solve traffic problems. Hence, if the cities have sufficient infrastructure to accommodate all of these people, it is certainly a great solution to traffic and pollution problems. Unfortunately, this is not the case and most cities are starved for space.

A better solution is to encourage more businesses to set up their operations in rural areas. This will create more jobs in those places and thus prevent the migration of rural people into urban areas. When people can find a job close to where they live, they do not have to travel long distances. This will solve traffic problems and the resultant pollution to a great extent. The government should also encourage organizations to offer the work from home option to their employees. Promoting e-commerce is another way to reduce the need for people to travel.

In conclusion, since cities are already overcrowded, it is not practical to move rural people to urban areas with the objective of reducing traffic and pollution. A better solution is to reduce the need for people to travel by providing them with job opportunities close to where they live.

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10

Some people think that in order to produce a happy society, it is necessary to ensure that there is only a small difference between the earnings of the richest and poorest. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

With the development of the society, people start to consider how to create a more joyful society. Some of them hold on an idea that narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor can be the best way to improve the life standard. However, I disagree with this point to some extent. I will give supporting arguments to this view and provide other means to create a more joyful society.

Initially, there is a variety of means making a happier society. For instance, if the government could ensure the rights of citizens, such as fair chance of education, employment and health services, people would feel satisfied with the society. Taking the Asia for example, it has a large population so that it’s a bit different for the governments to preserve human rights. Some people who are mediate-class even lower, they need to obey the rule standing in a line to wait for called in hospital, whereas, some rich people who are up-class have the privilege. Even in terms of education, some poor family cannot enjoy the education rights so the children can’t receive good education, which is not helpful to enhance the whole sense of happiness.

Moreover, narrowing the gap between the richest and the poorest may can result in social decay to some extent. Money is a great motivator for most people because they can improve the life standards and gain a sense of accomplishment. However, the rich may not have the incentive to work harder and enterprises are also not willing to set up a business, which is not conducive to social development. As a result, people may be unhappy with social decay.

On the other hand, there’s no deny that it is useful to way to develop a happier society. Paying tax can have important implications to a society. We should recognize that the government can achieve the goal of income redistribution by taxation. For example, in many countries the high income group needs to pay more high tax, while the low income group gets assistance from the government, which not only can balance the gap in income, but also enhance people’s happiness.

Overall, I am convinced that bridge the gap is a great way to improve life standards, but is not the only excellent approach, there are various means making a happier society.

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11

Recent advances in air travel have focused only on those sitting in upper class and have left other passengers with no benefits. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Sample 1

The airline industry has undergone tremendous revolution over the last few decades. It is argued that the aviation industry prioritizes the requirements of business class travellers and neglects the rest of the common passengers while developing policies and amenities regarding air travel. I completely disagree with this view, as the state-of-the-art security and safety achieved in air travel benefit all strata of passengers.

Safety of each passenger has improved by using advanced engineering principles. Strong, light and tough materials particularly developed for aviation industries by the experts have resulted in increased safety for all the passengers. Furthermore, modern technologies like avionics navigation ensure safe traveling for the entire passengers. Take the example of aluminum developed to build the aero plane body. It has enabled the flights to crash land on oceans if an emergency arises. Hence, the safety measures developed in the aviation sector keep everyone in mind.

Additionally, the timely service of the planes helps all to reach their respective destination on time. Earlier, due to many technical issues and frequent unpredicted maintenance issues, flights were often delayed or even cancelled. However, due to better management, the planes arrive and depart on time nowadays.

In conclusion, the advancement in the airline sector has benefited all types of passengers. I think that while devising an airline policy, needs of all passengers are taken into account. It is not right / fair to claim that only business class passengers enjoy the safety and timely service, because every traveller onboard is benefited by recent advancements.

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Sample 2

Air travel increased multifold and more & more people are getting benefits by this development. However, there is perception exists that only rich people are getting advantages and rests of the people have no benefits. I completely disagree that wealthy people are the only beneficiaries.

First of all, Airline sector is one of the major sectors in mostly countries which generate employment all around the year. People have opinion that poor people do not travel by air so it is of no use but to run the airlines employ every grade of employees which includes porter, ground staff, pilot, management etc. For example, Indigo airline started its operation from small airports in India and recruited 1000o people for various profiles, particularly ground staff, customer support, porter. For other miscellaneous work like food, entertainment etc. airline outsource the work to different industries. As a result, other industries are boosted and generate the employment as well.

Secondly, another benefits for airline is cargo operation which transfer good and materials from one part of world to another. Though most of the cargo operation is done by the ship, airline cargo is used for immediate transfers of couriers, medicine and other key products. For instance, my uncle who was in hospital, was referred the medicine which is manufactured in U.S.A. and on doctor advice, medicine was delivered within 12 hours which saved the life of my uncle.

To conclude, while majority of people travel by air belongs to upper middle class, still there are lots of benefits like employment, cargo etc. are availed by every section of society including poor class.

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12

Some people believe that countries should produce the food to feed their population themselves and import as little as possible. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Food plays an important role in this world. It is argued that countries should produce food for all the local people and cut down the import food from other countries. In my perspective, I tend to agree with this statement and will elaborate below.

There are certainly some reasons why countries should produce food for the local residents. One of the reasons is that the government to ease the local people financial problems. Due to importing food is usually expensive, people who has limited disposal income generally could not afford. By simply encouraging the manufactures to produce variety of food, inhabitants can enjoy the food that made from their home country and also pay less amount of money for the food.

Apart from this, import food may detrimental to our health. Many young people love eat junk food such as potato chips that imported from other countries. In most cases, individuals often purchase and consume an excessive amount of potato chips in their regular part of lives; therefore health issues become a headache to the government. As a result, the government needs to allocate enormous sum of money to the hospitals and clinics.

However, there are opposing voices. To begin with, the government will receive more income taxes from manufactures business activities. According to the taxation law stipulation, manufactures will need to pay more taxes for importing and exporting food. Therefore, the government definitely is the beneficiary because it is a stable income resource. Also, the government can use the money to improve more public facilities for the local residents.

In conclusion, although I agree that countries should produce food for all the population to consume, importing food is still important to every country because it will increase the economy level of both countries.

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13

Some children find some school subjects difficult (for example maths or philosophy), so these subjects should be optional rather than compulsory. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

There is no doubt that some students struggle to learning subjects as mathematics or philosophy. Therefore, it is claimed that pupils ought to choose whether or not to learn them. This essay completely disagrees with this statement and will develop a reasoned opinion why these subjects should be taught for all students.

To begin with, mathematics and philosophy are paramount subjects to learn how to develop a normal life. This is because math is present in all aspects of life; everything we do is based on a number. For example, the simply act of buying a product in a supermarket demand a person to sum or multiplication in order to complete the payment. In addition, learning philosophy is vital to learn how to develop a critically thinking. To illustrate this, in order to discuss a problem, the brain has to analyze it in advance, and this is taught in philosophy.

On the other hand, many people believe that these skills should be optional and schools should promote personalized learning. Hence, pupils could be able to learn and boost different skills depending on their individual abilities. As a consequence, they would be more likely to achieve a higher academic level. For example, if children’s strength is biology, he could be taught this subject in more detail with a personalized plan that boost his knowledge and thus become expert in this field. Despite this attractive benefit of leaving some subjects apart, I think that such as math and philosophy are vital for learning those others. For instance, in the cycle of Krebs in biology, is extremely important to know how to multiply the number of molecules in order to understand the process.

To conclude, although learning individualized subjects can enhance the level of education of a student, I believe that subjects such as math and philosophy are paramount for making a proper living.

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14

In recent years, television has contributed most to changing people’s quality of life. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

In the wake of technological advancement, Television proved to be an effective way of media. I agree that people’s quality of life has been affected by TV programs in many aspects. This will be shown by analyzing how TV impacted watchers’ cultural and foreign language deficiency as well as person’s life style.

Firstly, TV shows helps audience to acquire brief overview about how inhabitants of other parts of the world live. Nowadays, with the availability of satellites, each TV screen can display various shows and documentary movies done by people from other nationalities and cultural backgrounds. These would help individuals to get to know about traditions, life style and beliefs of other communities, and thus narrow the cultural gap between societies. Such Information was hardly to get before invention of TV. For instance, I knew a lot about the Chinese customs from watching the famous TV series, The Orientals. Furthermore, TV comprises an invaluable tool for teaching foreign languages. There are bunch of programs produced in diverse languages by native speakers around the world which would assist in learning the proper pronunciation and vocabulary. Personally, I used to watch a well-known TV show, namely Mind Your Language, to master the British accent. On the other hand, in the pre-TV era people would travel overseas or mingle with tourists to attain the same benefit. Clearly, the aforementioned benefits would have been difficult to gain in the pre-TV period.

Secondly, watching TV transformed the life style of people. The TV is considered as an enticing recreation time for many, therefore some people started to have some sort of addiction to TV and attend it in excess on daily basis; As a result, those people become gradually less physically active. A survey done by Cambridge University in 2016 found that 50% of adults spent 3-4 hours-a-day in front of TV screens. Additionally, TV affected the social interaction between people. In the past decades, as told by my grandparents, when there was no TV, people used to meet each other in their free time and make friendships. In contrast, nowadays there is an increasing tendency among people to choose TV over going out; eventually they might become socially secluded. Hence, it is obvious how the TV altered the active and social life style of certain proportion of people.

In conclusion, I firmly believe that the introduction of TV has brought changes to human life in both positive and negative ways.

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15

In the future it may be necessary for us to live on other planets. For this reason, some people believe that we should spend money now researching planets that could be a possible home, such as Mars. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Some people argue that living on earth is becoming more and more difficult. Therefore, we have to research for another planet to live. In my opinion, although I believe that It will be hard to live on earth in the future, the searching for the new planet is not necessary.

On the one hand, there are mainly two reasons why life on earth will be unsustainable. One obvious problem is that the rising level of pollution in the land and the ocean which leads to the disproportionate number of the population in these areas. For example, with the polluted ocean, there will be no fish to catch. As a result, fishermen and people who live near the beach will have to move to other areas to survive. Another factor is the overconsumption of natural resources. When the fossil fuels such as oil and coal are exploited to meet the mass demand for energy, they will quickly run out. Unfortunately, it takes ages for these resources to recover.

On the other hand, I believe that discovering the new planet is a waste of money. There are various urgent problems which directly affect people’s lives that we should consider. One of which is to improve the advances of technology in farming and therefore to reduce the risk of famine. Furthermore, people still have enough time to save the earth, by replacing fossil fuels with environmental-friendly and renewable energy such as wind or solar power, we will reduce the rate of global warming. Take Rex Hotel as a simple example; they are now using trucks with the oil made from corns to minimize the amount of emissions.

In conclusion, although it is getting harder and harder to live on the earth, I still believe that there are many ways to deal with this problem rather than to search for another planet to live

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16

Some cities create extra housing by building tall buildings. Other cities do this by building on wide areas of land. Which do you think is the best solution to the problem of housing?

Nowadays, due to constantly increasing population accommodation demand has increased as well. Thus, authorities of some municipal areas tackle this issue by constructing high-rise buildings. Meanwhile, there are cities that address it by using a much wider area for construction. In this essay, I will consider which solution is more beneficial.

On the one side are those residential areas, which are under construction of skyscrapers. This approach is suitable for those urban areas where lands are limited, while population-dense is high. Thus, vertical planning is the best solution for high-density cities because this away it is easier to satisfy housing demand and provide infrastructure for it. For example, Hong Cong is situated on a group of Islands and the city is one of the most populated cities.

On the other side are those built-up areas where citizens prefer to build accommodation in widespread areas. This course of action is feasible in case if a city has vast empty lands surrounding it, which can be available and suitable for residential construction. This method provides the opportunity to create a balanced environment where low-rise buildings naturally alternate trees and park zones. In addition, this kind of built-up is more practical and safe in earthquake hazardous regions such as my hometown that is surrounding by a mountain range.

In conclusion, both sides have their merits and there is no best option or one solution for all cities. This is because both approaches solve specific problems and proceed from the conditions of an area.

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17

Many people continue to use cars and motorcycles even though they know that they are bad for the environment. Why is this? What can be done to reduce the use of these vehicles?

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18

In many cities the construction of new houses and office buildings is not controlled. This leads to people building in whatever style they want without thinking about design. Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages? 

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Nowadays, more and more individuals and companies demand to have a complete control over the design of their residential properties without any interference from the authority. While this development serves buildings’ owners greatly, there are several demerits which need to be considered.

To begin with, lesser control on the buildings’ style in large cities indeed has some benefits. With the freedom to build personal architectures, individuals are enabled to use their creativity and imagination to create unique and modernized houses which make the cities look incredibly attractive to citizens and tourists. For example, a city with different types of houses and office buildings always draws more attention than places that have the same design for all architectures. Additionally, giving residents the power to decide their houses’ style will save a substantial amount of the governments’ revenue. Because people now pay individually for the architects, the authority is released from the budget burden.

Unfortunately, despite the aforementioned benefits, there are massive setbacks of such a development. Firstly, unlike the past when people were forced to apply the same buildings’ design, the residential area of cities will not maintain a standardization of houses in the future because each property now has a different style. This makes the area unappealing to the citizens who are seeking for a settling place. Secondly, without any strict control on the construction, there will always a risk of damaging the surrounding architectures. For instance, a building may collapse and cause severe consequence if the construction is not carefully supervised by the authority.

In conclusion, while letting people decide style of their own architectures bring several advantages; its drawbacks are far more unfavorable to the cities.

19

Young people are often influenced by their peers. Do the advantages of peer pressure outweigh the disadvantages?

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Sample 1

Nowadays, peer pressure is a hot topic in people’s daily life. Some people think that the only way to change young people better is influenced by other’s behaviors and situations, while others believe that it isn’t a wise choice. Before rending my opinion, I think it is important to take a glance on both sides.

The first point to note is that young people should restrain themselves by other’s behaviors and situations. In that way, young people can perform better in their daily lives Because the first step to success is making friends with people who are well conducted. The friends who have good manners can choose a correct way for us, it can help us to build a good behaviors.

In addition to this, peer pressure has positive effect on teenagers; it is a good way to participate in a new circle of friends quickly. That is to say, teenagers can be accepted by new friends. Why is this happened? Some teenagers who lack of self-confidence or have no reliable friends are afraid of pushing out by their friends, so they give up doing themselves to obey others. However, too much peer pressure is bad for teenagers; they have to do things which they are disliked.

On the negative side, it is an undeniable fact that peer pressure has opposite effect on youngsters, since the dangerous ideas may swallow the problem youngsters. Some youngsters will use extreme methods, in order to defeat the classmates who are better than themselves. Therefore, the problem youngsters will be influenced. For example, a student killed his roommates because of his grades.

Based on the facts out line above, one can understand that the negative side of peer pressure is bound to be a curse for the problem youngsters, even though the problem student will use extreme methods to defeat others. Anyway, I can’t imagine what the world will become if peer pressure disappear.

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Sample 2

It is widely accepted that a teenager’s personality is more related to that of his peers than to his parents or teachers. In my opinion, this is an accurate proposition because at this age people spend more time and develop more intimate relationships with their friends.

At a young age people tend to spend most of their time with friends and colleagues – for leisure, academic or work related activities. Therefore, they are constantly exposed to certain modes of thinking adopted by people they are surrounded by. According to neuroscientists, this helps in creating neuron associations with regards to certain beliefs that teenagers then accept as their own. In fact, life coaches, like Tony Robins, has stressed the fact that in order for us to change we need to change the people we hang out with.  In addition, the time spent with friends creates peer pressure, which encourages people to adjust their beliefs to “fit-in” in their social groups.

Furthermore, teenagers often develop a closer relationship with others of similar age or status. First, they are able to relate to these people who are under similar circumstances. They do not feel intimidated by then and hence they are willing to accept their views. Second, they feel the need to maintain close bonds with those in their social realm. Therefore, they exert additional effort to understand their friends’ mentality, which strengthens their friendship and hence their influence towards one another.

In short, on grounds of the time spent with friends and the close relationship developed, I can confidently say that teenagers are more influenced by their friends than by their parents and teachers.

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20

Many developing countries place a lot of importance on tourism. Why is this? Do you think that this is a positive or negative development?

Nowadays the businesses based on tourism are emerging extensively in several third world nations. This tendency resulted from several causes. Despite some a few benefits it may bring, tourism industry can have negative impacts on these nations

On the one hand, there is a variety of reasons for the advancement of this smokeless industry. First and foremost, it accompanies with great economic values. It seems to be shreds of evidence that tourism is the general growth trend in many prosper nations throughout the globe. Macao, which tourism makes up to 29.3 percent of GDP, is a good case in point. Secondly, travel businesses created numerous newly arrived careers. The locals can take advantage of their culturally unique articles lucratively as merchandising souvenirs and other related services. Moreover, along with the breakneck development of hotels and other business premises, there are several tourism-based occupations ; like Travel agency, tour guide or receptionist, to name a few. Last but not least, this industry is eco-friendly. People are reportedly more environmentally conscious and hence they irreversibly move toward cleaner industry

Nevertheless, tourism businesses may have some negative effects on developing countries. First of all, it causes culture loss. By way of illustration, traditional festivals and customs may be commercialized and lost its own integrity and identity. Secondly, tourism is responsible for environmental degradation. It is irrefutable that not every traveler has self-consciousness. This is shown by lots of forest fires are due to the irresponsibility of tourists. They may also damage various historical monuments and landmarks. Finally, tourism may go along with the raising of crime rates. Crowded areas give the potential offender a perfect opportunity to commit a crime such as pickpocketing or even terrorism

To sum up, the emergence of tourism is caused by high economic values, forming new occupations and eco-friendly. But it may also result in cultural loss, environmental degradation and increasing crime rates

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21

In the modern world, it is possible to shop, work, and communicate online without any face-to-face contact with other people. Is this a positive or negative development?

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Owing to the digitalization, these days, many activities are possible without any physical interactions. Although digital ways of shopping, working, and communicating are convenient and economical, in my opinion, their detrimental effects such as relationship conflicts and risk of fraudulence make them a negative development.

Undoubtedly, due to the surge in digital technology, people can now save time and money and lead a comfortable life. This is because of multiple reasons. Firstly, with the help of online shopping people can receive their favorite items at their doorsteps in no time with just a few clicks on mobile. As a result, they can save a huge expenditure on petrol consumed for supermarket trips. Secondly, communication has become quite easy and convenient due to the availability of applications such as Skype, WhatsApp, and many more, through which people can communicate with anyone without actually visiting their places. Moreover, digital advancement has benefitted the employees as well, as nowadays, many people work from home using the internet which provides them the comfort of working according to their schedule.

Despite the aforementioned advantages, I believe this is a negative trend due to its numerous drawbacks. Primarily, fewer face-to-face interactions tend to create social and personal differences. To exemplify, according to a study by Hopkins University, 40% of the people are likely to become socially aloof by the end of 2030, owing to the lack of interest in meeting others in person, caused by the huge influx in digital communication. Not only will this lead to issues with personal and social relationships, but it will also lead to people having issues within work because no facial interactions can easily create misunderstandings and conflicts with colleagues. Additionally, online shopping sometimes leads to fraud and misleads. Some fraudulent people hide the true identity of products while representing them online and mislead their customers with fake reviews and ratings.

In conclusion, while digital purchasing, employment, and interaction provide convenience and ease, in my perspective, these developments are more negative because they lead to social alienation and online scams.

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22

In the future, there will be a higher proportion of older people than younger people in many countries. Why is this? Is this a positive or negative development?

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Sample 1

It is widely believed that the number of senior people will solely outnumber that of the young generation worldwide in the future. From my perspective, this phenomenon will exert a negative impact and pose a serious threat to the improvement of society as a whole. This essay will first give a plausible explanation, and then talk about its impacts on the human race.

First of all, the situation in which an increase in the number of elderly citizens compared to the youth will put heavy pressure on the government budget. This is because senior generation not only retires from the laboring workforce, but also being paid for their pension annually by the governments, which reduces the finance for other aspects of life. For example, the retired community in Vietnam has been receiving monthly pension since 2014, exerting a reduction in the total national budget.

Furthermore, this phenomenon has been a burden for the young generation recently, due to the fact that the youth has a huge responsibility to provide finance for their families, and therefore, literally no one at home to take care of their grandparents. For instance, Japanese housewives are usually responsible for the housework and caring for their children as well as their grandparents, while their husbands are the breadwinners, and thus these women cannot pursue their own careers.

In conclusion, the phenomenon of the aging population generally has been causing some bad impacts on the development of a community, which is a financial burden for their governments and their children.

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Sample 2

These days, longevity of people is increasing due to advancement in health facilities as a result of which the number of senile people is also enhancing as compare to younger people. According to me it is entirely a pessimistic in the following paragraphs.

To commence with, first and the foremost reason of following trend is that the young generation is advance in technology and they have creative ideas to progress, whereas older generation is not able to catch up with this revolution in the technological world. Young minds know have to deal with the odd situation if any, with their innovative ideas which older masses lack. Although, old people have an experience in that realms but for efficiency in every field, innovative is preferred these days.

The second most common reason is the unemployment in the modern world as there is saturation in job faculty for young ones. The older generation is healthy due to better medical immunities and eventually, there is upsurges in their life span to work therefore the young citizens are not availing job opportunities because older folks are still working in their respective vacations.

To conclude, senility is a good aspect of development in a country but in return youth is suffering in an awful way.

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23

Handwriting today is less formal than it was in the past. What are the causes of this change? Is this a positive or negative development?

Nowadays, the handwritten style has got more informal compared with the past. In my opinion, this is happening because letters in longhand are almost replaced by electronic letters. In this essay, I will consider the pros and cons of the trend.

The main reason that handwriting has become less official is in the modern society people send official letters via email or printed ones. Thus, the public uses handwriting only for casual notes and lecture notes or for old-fashion letters. Meanwhile, our ancestors used to write an official letter on paper and send it by post, but with the appearance of technological advances, everything changed.

On the one side, switch on print in a business workflow is beneficial because it is difficult to write long texts by hand and if there were some mistakes in the text it would be difficult to fix them. Whereas, printed documents are can be effortlessly changed and improved. As well as this, printing is energy efficient and print is clearer and easier to read than a script. For many people, it is easier to write and just about as fast.

However, handwriting is one of the major skills, which has a significant impact on brain development. From my perspective, it is crucial for a child or even the elderly to write by hand as much as possible. Unfortunately, a handwritten copy is fast disappearing in the workplace, as well as many schoolchildren around the world, have been required to learn how to use a keyboard and write in print.

In conclusion, I believe that both skills are necessary and equally important. Despite the convenience of printed documents, society should not underestimate handwriting and its influence on our way of thinking.

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24

Some people believe that if an individual behaves in an anti-social manner, such as committing a crime, then society is to blame. What are the causes of anti-social behaviour? Who do you think is responsible?

In this rapidly changing world, people have been spending time by playing games or doing any sort of activities on their gadgets. It leads the implication to leave a life without social dependency has created the barrier in societies, more and more people have become formal and for the sake of talk, doing conversation. Due to this, a major part of the world has got affected and thus causing the sudden change in human behaviour. Sometimes people motivate to commit crimes due to various reasons such as loneliness, abstain the material things and joyful life etc. People often blame to the authorities and parents, friends and so on. However, I believe that an individual who commits these offence are responsible.

Eminent researchers in the psychologist fields have found a pattern about the reflection of works change the social behavior. Firstly, people constrain themselves in small part of the world which creates social aloofness around the places where they daily present. Secondly, introvert nature has also large amount of social impacts as it isolated with other human beings, as a result, people feel inferior and also think like a small minded person. Lack of social coexistence in human impacts the harmony between people. On the rare occasions, people perpetrate the crime which is unethical and morally disgraceful.

There are situation and circumstance which leads to doing the crime and blaming society or another thing which is not convincing. Being an anti-social does not infuse the feeling of hatred. In fact, other than introvert behaviour, external factors are more affecting to human beings and it motivates to become a delinquent. Hence, it is not an appropriate to blame societies, teachers, and parents or accompanies. However, children are very impressionable; also they pursue someone’s thought, traits quickly. Though, they do not know what they are doing is right or wrong. Therefore, parents are responsible until children become mature or adult.

In conclusion, No one has the freedom to blame the societies for the dirty deeds of an individual. Additionally, on larger extent, being introvert or extrovert is just attribute of human.

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Sample 2

It is unfortunate that in the midst of vast progress in every field of life there is also a growth in the anti-social behaviour. People commit crimes and have become less respectful of each other. In the following paragraphs, I shall analyze some causes of this phenomenon and suggest some ways forward.

Today we live in an era of technology in which the whole Earth has shrunk and become a global village. Everybody is connected to everybody through telephone lines and the internet but the warmth of relationships has taken a back seat. Most people have more than enough wealth, comfort and freedom but their hearts desire even more. To satisfy their hearts greed people choose unethical means such as committing petty and serious crimes. People have become selfish, isolated and indifferent and do not think twice before doing anything wrong. Each person is busy in his own quest for more.

The changing family structure is another big cause of this phenomenon. Earlier, people lived in joint families and the grandparents were there to supervise the children. Now there are nuclear families in which both parents go out to work and children are left unattended in the hands of pervasive media like the TV and the internet. No one monitors what they watch and they see the programs full of violence and crime which makes them anti-social. The pressure of consumerist society and peers also breeds anti-social behaviour.

 Finally, unemployment is a cause of this phenomenon. The youth have a lot of energy and if it is not harnessed in the right direction can make them go astray and commit crimes. Therefore, it is essential that they don’t suffer from the menace of unemployment.

The individuals themselves, the society and the governments should deal with this situation together. There are many solutions to this problem. To begin with, people have to learn to strike a balance between work and family life. Government should also fix the maximum hours a worker can work per week so that exploitation is not there in the job market. People should revert back to the old joint family system. This would be in the benefit of all. The children would learn moral values and the elderly would be well looked after. Negative effects of excessive consumerism should be taught to the people. More and more employment opportunities should be created for the unemployed youth. Self employment can also be encourages.

To put it in a nutshell, I pen down saying that, anti-social behaviour and mutual lack of respect in today’s times can be dealt with by taking simple measures and individuals and governments should collectively take these steps.

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25

People across the world are more similar than they are different. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

OR

Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

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Thanks to the advent of globalization, international corporations have opened their branches in every corner of the world. Consequently, the same products are available everywhere and this has made people and countries look the same. In my opinion, this is not exactly a positive change. I will support my stand with valid arguments in the following paragraphs.

First of all, when people everywhere buy the same products, cultural identities disappear. For example, in Shanghai, many foreign clothing companies sell T-shirts to local residents. As a result, few local people wear traditional clothes like qipao now and the traditional clothing industry is dying. Many young people cannot even identify their traditional clothing and fewer people know how to make traditional clothes. If the government took actions to help the traditional clothing industry, people would be able to keep their cultural heritage and craftsmen working in this sector would not lose their livelihood. Unfortunately, that is not the case and locals are forgetting their culture and ethnicity.

On top of this, buying the same stuff everywhere is bad for local economies and the environment. Oftentimes, products are imported from foreign countries and have to travel thousands of miles before they reach the end user. This does not help the environment or the local craftsmen. The only beneficiaries are multinational companies. Small businesses and manufactures cannot compete with them and quickly lose their market share and there is less demand for skilled workers who can produce goods with local features. Consequently, people employed in traditional sectors are becoming jobless. For instance, the young generation prefers fast food rather than traditional Chinese food. The market is shrunk for these people who make a living by selling traditional Chinese foods. Likewise, carpenters, cobblers, potters are all becoming jobless in the current scenario.

To sum up, the disadvantages overweigh the benefits when people begin to buy the same goods everywhere and different regions become more and more similar. In this scenario, the cultural heritage will be destroyed and the unemployment rate will rise.

26

It was predicted that people in the 21st century would have much more free time than in the past. To what extent has this prediction come true?

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27

The most effective way to solve the current traffic and pollution problems in cities is to encourage people to move from the suburbs or countryside into the city centre. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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28

Some people believe that having interviews is the best way to find new employees for a company. Others say that there are better alternative ways to appoint employees. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

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It is a common practice all over the world for employers to interview potential candidates. While I don’t think that this is the best way to assess the job worthiness of a particular candidate, I cannot suggest any better alternatives. In my opinion, combining the interview with mock practical tests and written examinations is the best way of finding suitable candidates.

Interviews certainly are useful in many ways. The fact that they are used all over the world is a clear sign that a lot of employers find them useful. During an interview, the employer can assess the personality of a candidate to a great extent. Also there are various techniques that the interviewers can use to find out how a particular person will behave in various situations. Interviews are particularly helpful for selecting employees whose jobs require them to interact a lot with potential clients and customers. For example, people working in sales, marketing, PR or HR need good people skills that can be measured during an interview.

Perhaps the biggest downside of interviews is that the candidates can come prepared and turn the interview to their advantage. It is possible to give learned answers to questions asked during an interview. In addition, it is foolish to believe that all candidates will demonstrate their true nature or work ethics during an interview.

Another disadvantage of interviews is that by interviewing someone, an employer can only assess their personality and general knowledge. An interview, for example, is not a good way of measuring a person’s technical skills. By simply interviewing someone who has a degree in engineering, an employer cannot find out whether they have the skills required to deliver a good performance at the workplace. In such situations putting the candidate through tasks they would have to typically do before offering them a job is a better solution.

To conclude, while it is true that an interview is not the best method of choosing a candidate, there aren’t many better alternatives. In my opinion, employers should combine the interview with written tests and mock practical tests to find the most suitable employees.

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29

Some people believe that individuals are born with leadership skills. Others say that these skills can be developed with experience. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

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Sample 1

It is true that some people are likely born to be leaders, therefore it is commonly believed that leadership is a gifted skill. However, others believe that talent is what could be trained and leadership skills are no exception. Both sides of the issue should be analyzed before I give my opinion.

On the one hand, it is understandable why people think that only some special individuals can be good leaders. Most people often judge others by appearance and mentality, which are influenced by genes and these factors are also essential characteristics to decide a potential leader. For instance, plenty of voters believe that competence is the most integral contribution/quality of a politician, therefore if they perceive someone competent, they are likely to vote for that candidate. Intelligence is another important element of a successful manager because it allows the manager to think independently and respond quickly in any circumstances. Abraham Lincoln can be a good example. He had no chance to access the full-time educational system because of poverty, but he soon proved to be an intelligent child as he gained most knowledge from self-study. His brilliant intellect then helps him lead the United States through its Civil War and become one of the greatest presidents in history.

Although necessary qualities of a leader seem to be inborn, some still believe that leadership skills can be gained by training and experience. The reason for that is people’s behavior can be changed by the environment. For example, as ordinary teenagers joint programs for global youth leaders, they have a chance to present their ideas and cooperate with world leaders, which gives them requisite skills for high-ranking positions in the future. Besides, team work, which is one of the most vital leadership skills requires individuals to spend much time and effort to work with various kinds of people, even they are gifted leaders or not. In fact, all managers always learn the way to inspire employees to share new ideas and balance conflicts between members of a team if they want to run a business unsuccessfully.

In conclusion, there are many ways to become a leader and I am convinced that leadership skills can be learned if learners are enthusiastic.

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Sample 2

It is often stated that some people are born to be a leader. However, many people assume that a good leader may achieve leadership skill due to social interaction. Personally, I reckon to the second statement that to be a leader means to have the ability to understand some needs of the public and having proper behaviour and the leadership quality is achieved rather than to born with.

To begin with, the leadership qualities may trigger when there are crisis or opportunities in a community or a particular place which allows individuals to step forward and take some responsibilities. These characteristics occur to respond the social requests for overcoming some obstacles in that place. For example, when there is an election in a region, some individuals can register to be a leader, however, the only way to ensure the real figure is by giving matters to solve which may prove their leadership ability. Therefore, people who gain some input from society may have better qualities than people who have less interaction ability.

Furthermore, it is believed that person in charge should respect one another. It means that they could manage and embrace people from various types. At the same time, the leader should treat others equally regardless their background and social status. Treating people equally might seem challenging in term of social satisfaction. However, if a leader can solve this issue, they will be known as a real leader.

Some people are born with leadership quality as per many people’s opinion. But I believe that leadership is a quality which is related to someone’s personality, social influence, motivation and ambition. It is not unusual that we have so many great leaders in our history that simply responded to the need of time and stepped forward to help others. Leadership is a quality we must learn and feel passionate about.

In conclusion, some qualities of leadership could not be achieved as a gift or destiny, yet it takes time and effort. Being friendly to society may become indispensable aspect to reach that goal since this opportunity provides people to engage deeply.

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30

Some people believe that the government should financially support older members of society who have retired. Others feel that these people should pay to support themselves. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

It is true that when people advance into their golden years, they require more help and attention. For that reason, a significant number of people hold the opinion that the government should provide financial assistance to the elderly. However, I tend to agree with those who argue that workers should be saving a portion of their income to have a nest egg in their retirement.

To begin with, a culture of saving rather than depending on the government may foster the overall economic development of a country. In other words, if people were to accumulate their own savings for their pension age, it would lessen the financial burden on the government. As a result, the government would be able to release more funds to more productive purposes, such as development of infrastructure, industries, hospitals, and so on, which may expedite the overall progression of a country.

In addition to economic factors, putting money aside has some personal benefits. Since savings-oriented people are not dependent on the state for their living expenses, this may instill a sense of self-respect and pride in them. On the other hand, those who are reliant on financial assistance very often face the negative societal stigma, as many people consider them to be inferior and unworthy members of society. Hence, to live a life with dignity and pride, taking responsibility for funding one’s own retirement is evidently a better option from individual perspective.

In contrast, the provision of monetary outlays for retirees has proven unfeasible in many countries. Since in many nations the number of senior citizens is on the rise, in the long run governments are likely to struggle to sustain the cost of providing for the elderly. The early signs of this have been seen in many countries that were forced to raise the retirement age, including my home country where men can now retire at the age of 67 instead of 65. Therefore, in the foreseeable future, these kinds of support may become completely unsustainable.

In conclusion, the provision of state monetary support may undoubtedly lessen the concern of retirees to some extent. However, considering the issue of sustainability of this provision, it is better to opt for individual savings from the very beginning of working life, for the benefit of both individual and national development.

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Sample 2

Retired people have been increasing in numbers, nowadays. This stage of life is believed to be given support financially by the government, however, there are others who think that they need to finance their needs and should not expect any government assistance. Both of these views need to be discussed further as I believed that these retired individuals are important members of the society and should be given support from authorities for as long as they need them.

Many of the retired people are receiving pensions from their previous work in different sectors that offered insurance policy. This financial support sometimes comes from the government’s insurance system if they had worked for the government sector such as public teachers, soldiers, and other government office employees. In this regard, it is axiomatic that the government should support retired people because they had rendered service for a period of time.

Meanwhile, there are retired people who were not able to establish a financial security at their old age. These are the ones who worked mineral jobs, or unfit to work at all. In this case, there are government authorities who make sure that these individuals are taken care under a social service unit. Thus, rendering care to these people is a government responsibility in order to build a humane society.

However, a part of the society is not keen on the idea of government helping the retired ones. This is due to the fact that some of them are still physically and mentally able to work. Others also claim that their families, especially children should take responsibility in financing their needs. For instance, in the Filipino culture, elderly are well supported by their family members and some children even include them in their paid insurances, such as medical care.

To conclude, governments need to allocate budget for welfare of retired persons who do not have any support from private sectors or their own families. These retired members of the society have rendered in their own way a service to their nation and thus should be respected and supported in their needs.

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31

Some people believe that teenagers should study all school subjects. Others argue that they should focus on only the subjects that they are good at or find most interesting. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Our education system has evolved in the past few years. Teenagers go to schools to gain knowledge on a variety of subjects. This idea is controversial and people opine differently. Some people say that students should have the freedom to study the subjects of their choice, whereas others say that equal attention to all the subjects is beneficial. In my opinion, teenagers should learn all the subjects and gain knowledge about each and every discipline in their curriculum.

On one hand, high school curriculum is tailored to teach important subjects such as mathematics, science, English, history, and geography. These act as a foundation for future career applications. Not only are they designed to provide knowledge, but also allow the students to select the subjects that they might wish to take up for higher studies and career opportunities. Moreover, teenagers are not capable enough to make the best decision pertaining to one particular subject that they would want to study in the foreseeable future.

On the other hand, if a student wishes to be selective, it might be beneficial as well. This would let him ensure undivided focus on his choice of subjects and help him build a sound foundation during the formative years. This would provide students with more time and resources to spend on comparatively lesser and more interesting subjects, leading to better results.

According to me, the option of studying all the subjects enables the students to keep their options open and possibly widen their range of interests. To conclude, I would say that it is best for them to study all the subjects and figure out a particular stream or subject at a later stage in life, preferably during higher studies.

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Sample 2

It is considered by some that juveniles ought to pay attention to all subjects in the school curriculum while others think that they should put more effort in the subjects in which they perform well and are interested. In my opinion, I believe that teens must focus on all the different subjects rather than the ones which they are good at.

On the one hand, some think that minors should concentrate on all subjects and I agree. As the school curriculum has a wide variety of subjects which include the academic as well as the extra curriculum activities, It help in the child’s overall development and they becomes an all-rounder’s. In other words, paying attention to all the subjects in school, let the children have a variety of options to choose for their future as they are still a very young age to decide a particular subject, as their subject of interest and continue it for a lifetime. Moreover, knowledge of every subject is necessary even in our daily lives for instance, simple mathematical calculations are required for grocery shopping to check and calculate the amount spent.

On the other hand, others believe that if the teenagers are interested and are performing well in a particular subject, they should focus more on it thus, considering that subject for their future studies. But, many teenagers lose their interests later in the subjects in which they are good as they are still young to make these decisions for the future. Furthermore, taking only one subject can restrict their options for further studies if their interests change and they will be left with no options, but to continue it. This can discourage them and may even lose interest in studies.

In conclusion, minors should be interested in all subjects in school as later on they have many options to decide from and will not be stuck with only one subject which they may dislike later.

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32

In some cultures, older people are valued most highly. In other cultures, youth is valued more. Discuss both views and give your opinion as to which age should be most valued.

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Every nation has their different tradition and norms. Similarly, aged people get high respect in some cultures, while in others youngsters are considered more valued. In this essay, I will discuss both the perspectives and then form my opinion.

Proponents of first view-point contend that old people have more experience and wise knowledge as they have come across many situations throughout their life. World can get great benefit from their experience. So, due to huge knowledge and precious experience they get more respect in society. Moreover, they claim that grown ones also sacrifice their whole life to offer better life to their offspring. They have done lot of hard work to make their children’s future bright. Consequently, they do not get high respect; they earn it through their hardships for their new coming generations.

Advocates of second view-point keep up that youngsters are back-bone of a nation; they are the future of nation. They will become the future doctors, teachers, engineers and will contribute in the development of nation. As the development of nation is fully dependent on its youth, as a result they get more respect. Furthermore, they argued that youngsters also have adapted with technology in far better way, where old ones are still grappling to learn fundamental use of technology. So, they have a notion that old people have served enough as they can and now the entire spotlight should be on the youngsters because they are the coming future of nation.

In my opinion, old population gets huge respect in society owing to their wise wisdom and better eyesight. They also make world better place to live for their coming generations. Whereas youngsters are considered future of a nation with strength to adapt with new technology that is why they are more valued in some cultures. I think that, the respect of different age groups is different according to the mindset and expectations towards them by society.

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Sample 2

It is a debatable issue whether the later years of life are more valuable or the young age. In my opinion, since youth is a period for attaining goals, I consider it to be a more precious stage in an individual’s life.

On the one hand, during the old age, people have more leisure time, which enables them to perform the desirable activities. In other words, they spend most of the life while working for fulfilling the responsibilities toward the families, such as providing good education and lifestyle to children, and for this pursuit, they often sacrifice their own preferences. However, after the retirement they can enjoy playing favourite games, watching movies, devoting time for hobbies and visiting relatives, leading to complacency. Conversely, I disagree with this view because old people often confront with various health problems owing to which it becomes difficult for them to indulge in all the above-mentioned activities.

On the other hand, youth provides opportunities to achieve the ambitions, which makes people independent as well as confident. To illustrate, youngsters are energetic and enthusiastic, and they effectively prove their mettle and propensity by working hard, which enables them to stabilize in the professional the professional life. As a result, they become the respectable member of the society. For instance, a survey conducted by the University of Texas on two thousand senior citizens in America reveals that 79% of them consider the young age more important because during this period they established their identity.

To conclude, while people have different opinions, I personally believe that the young age is an indispensable stage of life because people can fulfill their dreams by making more efforts and overcoming the impediments during this time.

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33

Some people believe that individuals are responsible for their own personal happiness. Others argue that happiness can be affected by other factors. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

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For some people happiness is nothing but a state of mind and a person is individually responsible for it; however, for many others happiness depends upon external factors. In my opinion, external factors play a huge role in making a person happy. Both the viewpoints are elaborated in the essay.

Happiness is considered to be the sole responsibility of an individual by many. This is because, people have the perception that happiness depends on a person’s state of mind and heart and every person must have the ability to take control of one’s emotions. Moreover, many self-help books, yoga and meditation institutes preach how to take control of your state of mind to maintain good mental health and peace. Happiness for them is all about inner satisfaction and through practices like meditation and yoga it can be achieved.

Conversely, many individuals consider external factors extremely crucial for their bliss. That is to say, every person has some expectations or dreams that they want to fulfill, be it a good job, living with family, a house or a big car. People often feel satisfied after achieving something big or fulfilling one or the other dream and this further brings a feeling of bliss in them. Furthermore, researches and surveys have proved that even weather also has a huge impact on people’s state of mind. For example, according to the research conducted by the Times of India, Pune was on top of the list of the happiest cities of India due to its pleasant weather.

In conclusion, although many people think that happiness can be solely achieved without considering other factors, it cannot be denied that a person cannot be happy if externally everything is going against his expectations.

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Sample 2

People have different approaches regarding a happy life. While some correlate it with financial states, others believe, there are other aspects which determine the level of happiness. Both their viewpoints will be discussed and critically evaluated before a final conclusion is drawn.

On the one hand, undoubtedly, money plays a vital role in an individual’s life. In the absence of it, life will be miserable because basic amenities are mandatory for each person and they can only be afforded with money. For example, food, shelter and clothes are the three basic necessities without which it will be definitely hard for a person to lead a life of satisfaction as these things make a life worth living. Moreover, only when people can meet their fundamental requirements sufficiently and have some means of entertainment and relaxation they can claim they are happy. Thus, it goes without saying happiness is closely related to one’s economic success.

On the other hand, it is not necessary that abundance of wealth leads a lot of happiness. For example, it has been found in various surveys in the developed countries that most of the rich people do not accept that happiness can be brought with money. However, other factors like, family life, round health and job satisfaction are equally prominent to determine a person’s level of happiness. Sometimes, people with average low are seen to be extremely satisfied with their lives. So, wealth cannot be considered as a role determiner of a happy life.

After analyzing both arguments, it can be rated that money plays an indispensable role in providing happiness to mankind but to lead a harmonious life, good family, round health and job satisfaction are also vital.

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Sample 3

One of the highly controversial issues today relates to whether happiness depends on oneself or other external elements. In this essay, I will examine this question from both points of view and then explain why I agree with the former opinion.

On one side of the argument, there are people who argue that happiness depends on oneself. This is because what is happiness for an individual is different from person to person. It depends on people whether they feel happy when the same event happens to them. Therefore, some can find happiness in their work, while it may bring about only agony to others. It is also possible to say that people can obtain true happiness by making great efforts. One good illustration of this is a family relationship. People often struggle to understand their partners, raise their children, and solve family problems. Such efforts can make them happy in the end.

On the other hand, it is also possible to make the opposing case. It is often argued that external factors have a significant influence on individuals’ happiness. People often have this opinion because emotion can be affected by external stimulation. For example, a person, who has lived a happy life so far, can be unhappy suddenly due to the death of a family member. It is often extremely challenging to control this change of emotional state on its own. Support from others can relieve sadness and make them happy again.

In conclusion, I believe that both arguments are convincing. On balance, however, I tend to believe that individuals have responsibility for their own happiness because it is different among people and can be achieved by their own efforts, not coming from outside.

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Sample 4

Striving for happiness has always been one of the primary objectives of human beings. Some people believe that the ability to be happy depends on an individual themselves, while others say that several external influences may impede. I am of the opinion that outer factors play a vital role in people’s happiness.

On the one hand, the achievement life satisfaction is clearly considered unattainable without an open mindset of a person. This means that a positive attitude as well as the ability to receive pleasure is supposed to be essential elements of happiness. Therefore, people who opt to establish low benchmarks and live to their standards may consider themselves satisfied with their lives. For example, the opulent are not always regarded as happy people owing to the individual requirements; and often exorbitant purchases do not entail happiness. In other words, people who crave for happiness ought to possess the right state of mind.

On the other hand, I reckon that several externalities affect humans’ pursuit for wellbeing, namely the government and spontaneous health issues. Firstly, the authorities encroach upon one’s happiness by implementing unjust laws, which exacerbate the person’s life quality. Moreover, another uncontrolled factor is terminal illnesses that cast a shadow on of the most crucial property of people, their health. The above-mentioned phenomenon defies control and should be taken into consideration as the most damaging factors for happiness.

To conclude, although I admit the role of a personal attitude, I strongly believe that external factors such as diseases and governmental interference must be dealt with in determining people’s happiness.

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34

Some believe that charitable organisations should help people no matter where they live. Others argue that charities should only help those living in the country where the charity is based. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

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According to some people, charities should help only those people who live within their national boundaries; however, others opine that they should provide assistance everywhere. In my opinion, it depends on the mission of the organization and its resources. Well-funded charities can offer help everywhere; those that are short of resources should prioritize their own people.

On the one hand, if NGOs decide to serve only the people of their country, we cannot quite blame them. After all, their resources come from the local people and as such when this money is utilized for the benefit of the locals, it is fully justified. Charitable work focusing on local issues also satisfies donors who are eager to see a resolution to the problems affecting their country or community. Also, many charitable organizations have limited resources. For example, charities operating in poor countries are often short of resources. They cannot provide help abroad. If they attempt to do this, they will only antagonize the local community that funds their initiatives.

On the other hand, there are many international organizations flush with cash and other resources. For instance, UNICEF is an international organization which aims to aid children worldwide. They receive funding from affluent countries and hence they are quite capable of offering assistance in any part of the world. There are several such organizations that have the backing of developed countries. It is their moral and constitutional responsibility to provide assistance to needy people everywhere.

To conclude, charities should work with the objective of helping the needy. Who they should help or where they should provide help depends on their financial situation and objectives.

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35

Some educators believe that international school exchange visits are important for teenage children. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Students who participate in international student exchange programs gain rich benefits. They return as more confident individuals with a wider perspective on life and international affairs. Needless to say many parents and teachers support these programs. In my opinion, international student exchange programs have more advantages than disadvantages.

Student exchange programs force students to leave their comfort zone and explore a foreign territory totally unknown to them. This helps them discover their hidden talents and leadership qualities. They also learn to adapt to unfamiliar surroundings and living conditions. As a result, they become bolder and more confident.

In countries like India, children are overly dependent on their parents. In fact, it is not uncommon for Indian parents to take decisions on their children’s behalf even after they turn adults. When these teens participate in exchange programs they learn to live on their own.

Also, when students get to study in another country and mingle with students of another culture, their perspective on life broadens. They learn to tolerate differences. They also understand that the world is big enough to accommodate people of all faiths, customs and religions. This makes them better individuals.

Cultural exchange is another benefit. When students live abroad as part of an exchange program, they learn to appreciate another culture. They also bring their culture with them. This allows their hosts to become familiar with their culture.

Student exchange programs also improve the career prospects of the participants. Because of their broader perspective and their exposure to international communities, they are sought after by companies that operate in different parts of the world.

To conclude, there are several benefits to participating in international student exchange programs. These programs boost the confidence levels of the participants and make them more tolerant.

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Sample 2

There is a common belief that international student exchange programs would bring benefits to all participants. Despite some obvious disadvantages of this projects, I believe that there are outweighed by the advantages.

On the one hand, there are several major drawbacks when teenagers go overseas. Firstly, those exchange programs cost a considerable amount of money, which a handful of students may be inaccessible. For example, students who come from developing countries would find difficult to apply student exchange programs in industrial nations because of the financial burden. Secondly, even with preparation and knowledge about the new environment, adolescents could still experience culture shock, which can affect them in different ways. Another potential drawback is health issues that can occur during the stay in a foreign country.

On the other hand, I believe that the benefits are more significant than such disadvantages. One reason for this notion is that international visitors would have a shinier resume which is valuable for them in the years to come. By working in foreign organizations, they will gain many practical experiences that make their profile more competitive. Another reason is that teenagers would have a chance to experience culture exchange. This broadens their mind, and also helps them make new friends for a lifetime. Additionally, after finishing the program, overseas students tend to obtain more opportunities to find good jobs because they have a strong network of friends.

In conclusion, I would argue that the advantages of international student exchange programs are more significant than the disadvantages.

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36

Too much money is spent on repairing old buildings instead of constructing new ones. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Nowadays in all most all the cities, we can see new buildings with new futuristic designs are built. Some argue that, instead of maintaining an old building, building a new will prevent spending too much money. I agree to the statement and this essay will discuss why it is more relevant to the current time.

First of all, while building it new, we can build that building to be future proof by using improved materials and also with the same cost and a design to match the current population demands. Furthermore, it will be more secure and use less space than older buildings. For an example, most of the older buildings like houses have one or two levels above with limited space, while a new building can hold more people in less land space so it will be more efficient.

Secondly, comparing to the newest designs, older ones structural integrity is compromised over the years and because of that it is more unsecure. Although there are some old buildings that have more historical values, most of them are taken up more land space than a normal design. Hence it is hard to maintain and repair and needs to spend more money than a new design house. Moreover, comparing to the new buildings, adaptation to the new technology and easy repair will be impossible in cost wise.

In conclusion, I agree that instead of spending too much money on renovating old buildings, building new ones will be the better and cost effective solution.

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Sample 2

It is a fact that everything even human also required update or replacement after a specific time. So, a substantial question rises, and that is what should be done with old buildings. Some people opine that to spend money on their restoration and upkeep rather than to build modern ones. I partially agree with their views. So, I would discuss some points which strengthen my viewpoints in the upcoming paragraphs.

There are many reasons/ arguments in favour to repair the old buildings. There is much building which is based on historical facts, so it is necessary to spend money to maintain and improve the structure to save it for upcoming generations and save it so that people get meaning full information from it. Some buildings are used for official work, so if these buildings are knocked down, it will affect the job, so it is better to repair it instead of building new construction. Moreover, people’s feeling and good memories are attached to the old building, so they prefer to spend money to repair it rather than to demolish it.

On the other hand, there are many merits of new buildings, and the foremost advantage is it could be made in such a way that it can accommodate more people in that much space. Modern architecture is constructed with new facilities such as new interior design, sufficiently airy and more secure as compare to the old one. Another benefit is I can save much energy mean to say terraces could be used for solar panels which could save energy. Many buildings are or houses more than loo years old and these types of the structure required to maintain after few months and are not secure for people, so it is good to build a new building instead to repair old ones.

In conclusion, as we have seen above, those old buildings are still meaningful to people’ lives as well as educational purpose. Therefore, people should be encouraged to preserve our historical and significant structure but build a new one if old building required much money for repair and maintains.

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Model answer 3

It has been a topic of intense debate for quite a while now regarding what should be done with older buildings. Some opine it is useless to invest in their upkeep and restoration and that it would be better to construct modern ones instead. I partly agree with their opinion. I feel that those old buildings that are neither beautiful nor useful should be demolished whereas these buildings that adds character to a location give it a unique identity or have a historical significance ought to be repaired and restored in any way costs.

There are several arguments in favour of demolishing older buildings. It is not so uncommon to listen to the news on TV that construction in a specific city crumbled killing a few folks. The maintenance costs of these buildings that are in deplorable shape are far more than the cost of demolishing and building new ones instead.

Furthermore, the newer buildings can be produced in such a manner they can accommodate more people in that space. These buildings may also be designed to be energy efficient by using newer technologies that could save plenty of energy in the future. By way of instance, double glass panels may be used for insulation, and the terraces could be made as to accommodate solar panels. These steps are the need of the hour contemplating the

On the other hand, there are a few old buildings that give a distinct identity to a location and with a little maintenance can be used effectively even now. For example, the Sainik School of Kapurthala was the house the maharaja of Kapurthala, Jagatjit Singh. It is a magnificent piece of architecture and is presently serving a divine purpose. Many other such buildings house principal government offices or have been converted into hotels for tourists. We will be losing lots of our cultural and historical heritage if we demolish these buildings.

To put it in short, I pen down stating that, the decision to maintain or demolish old buildings should be made after considering many factors. If the old building can be used efficiently or be forced into a tourist attraction or is giving a personal identity to a location, it should be preserved. If a building is occupying plenty of room and is unfit to live in, then it ought to be demolished.

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37

The international community must act immediately to ensure that all countries reduce their consumption of fossil fuels, such as gas and oil. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

The greatest threat for humanity and for all life forms on the Earth is global warming caused by human actions. I strongly believe that all countries should closely coordinate to drastically reduce the consumption of fossil fuels since pollution in a country impacts others and no country will take the initiative due to the economic impacts of such measures.

Body Paragraph 1: (EXPLAIN reason 1 – pollution impacts all countries)

The pollution of every country impacts the environment of other countries in one way or another. Excessive plastic usage in India, for instance, impacts Singapore and Saudi Arabia. The Indian plastic, which is manufactured from crude oil, is irresponsibly dumped in the oceans. This pollution not only contaminates the local marine life but also that of other countries. Similarly, pollution from China’s coal-powered plants and steel mills impacts the environment of Japan in adverse ways and depletes the ozone layer over other countries. Since water and air cannot be divided between different countries and they act as a single global system, all countries must act together to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

Body Paragraph 2: (EXPLAIN reason 2 – economic impact of acting alone)

Moreover, this is an era of competition in which all countries compete with others to produce goods at a low price. Since reducing reliance on crude oil will entail huge investments in alternative sources and this will increase the price of all manufactured goods, no country will take an initiative. The country which takes the initiative will lose a competitive edge over others. Consequently, all countries should come together on a common platform such as the United Nations and pledge to curtail the use of fossil fuels in an organized manner.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the future of humanity is at stake and the price of not acting is too high. I think all countries must cooperate and impose strict reduction targets on all countries.

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Sample 2

It is suggested by many environmentalists that all couturiers must work together to reduce the overall consumption of fossil fuels. I completely agree with this statement as it would be helpful in reducing levels of pollution and sustaining the non-renewable resources.

The level of pollution around the globe has risen dramatically in the last two decade due to a phenomenal growth of industries. This has resulted in insurmountable consequences such as the degradation of air and water quality, a rise in global temperature and a change in climate patterns (Maintain parallelism using articles.). If governments of all countries make a pact to make concerted efforts to limit the use of fossil fuels, these problems can be addressed to an extent. It is clear that pollution originates originating from one country seriously impacts the ecological balance around the world. Therefore, it is better that the global community work together to stop further deterioration of the environment.

Furthermore, natural resources are being impending expended at an alarming speed. Some countries use non-renewable resources more than others. For example, consumption of petrol and diesel in developed countries such as the UK and the USA is much more than that of underdeveloped countries such as Ghana, Liberia. If the international community imposes sanctions or taxes on beyond maximum heavy taxes on the consumption of these fuels then they would stop the unscrupulous and incessant exploitation of natural resources. In turn, the government of a specific country would make efforts to raise awareness among in the public not to overuse their vehicles and to avoid extreme consumerism, which have a direct correlation with the consumption of natural resources. By doing so, non-renewable resources can be sustained and preserved for the distant future.

In conclusion, as per my perspective, it is of current importance that the global community should shoulder the responsibility to keep the use of natural resources under check. They would surely reduce pollution levels and save these resources for the future.

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38

Spoken communication is always more powerful than written communication. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Some people argue that the verbal form of communication is more powerful than written communication. In my opinion, it varies from individual to individual and sometimes also depends on the context in which the matter is to be conveyed to the other person. Thus, both forms of communication hold equal importance.

Spoken communication is often considered more versatile as while speaking the emotions of the orator can be easily captured by the listener. Eyes mirror the soul and facial gestures can easily reflect whether the speaker is fake or genuine. Famous politicians and influencers around the world resort to this form of communication while conveying their thoughts. A passionate speech can arouse the emotions of the listeners. If we read history, we will read about brilliant orators who even brought about revolutions with the power of their fiery speeches. However, this form of communication does not always produce the desired result as while sorting out a misunderstanding in a face to face interaction, things may go out of control and people might end up deeply scarring an otherwise beautiful relationship. Spoken interactions are also not very suitable for conveying unpleasant messages.

On the other hand, written form of communication is better for someone who lacks the ability to convince others through speech. Some people might not be able to deliver an impeccable speech but their words speak volumes about them. Pen is mightier than the sword is not just a saying. Some writers shake the world when they pen down their ideas and opinions. However, written communications often reach only a limited section of the society.

To conclude, just like the fingers of the human hand, no two persons are alike. Someone might have excellent oratory skills and others might excel in written form of communication. Hence, it is hard to say whether written communication is more powerful than spoken communication because it depends entirely on the circumstances and the written or spoken skills of the communicator.

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Sample 2

The question of whether oral communication or written one is more effective has been a matter of debate since the beginning of the twenty-first century. While there are some benefits of communication through written language, I would agree that it is better to regard communication as a verbal activity.

There are main advantages of written communication. First, thanks to the documents of written communication, important information can be easily preserved and accessed in the future. For example, government regulations were issued through written documents, and as a result citizens are easy to grasp and understand law rules clearly and accurately Second, written communication helps to make communication effective. This means that it is more dependable and effective than those of other forms of communication, which leads to avoid misunderstandings and legal problems in the future.

On the other hand, I believe there are several reasons why many people prefer speaking instead of writing to communicate. Firstly, the verbal form of communication helps to convey messages at a rapid speed. Indeed, face-to-face interaction is more time-saving than writing, and therefore, spoken communication is favorable for daily conversation, especially in case of pressing issues. Secondly, when it comes to express emotions, responses of two-way communication are a wiser choice. For instance, in most U.S elections, two major-party candidates for president have to debate directly, and hence, they fully show personal opinions to persuade voters to vote his or her.

In conclusion, although written communication has some benefits, I believe verbal communication can be more powerful.

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39

The only reason to work hard is to earn money. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Although different people work for different reasons, getting high pay is the most vital of them. In my opinion, I agree to this point. This essay will discuss the necessity of money followed by how it gained more value in recent time.

To begin with, value of money is indispensable in everyone’s life. Since ages money played a significant role to prove someone’s importance in our society. In the developing countries like us, where the major population is still struggling to get the basic needs of their families, one has to put huge efforts to earn one’s living. In addition to that in the metro cities the cost of living and basic amenities is so exorbitant that one has to work harder in order to live and fulfill the need.

Furthermore, in recent times the trends has been emerged to live a luxurious life and consequently a person spends most of his life in earning rather than actually living. In other words, there is plethora of options on which you can spend extravagantly to get the comfort and luxury which can give you pleasure. As a result even the affluent people are also lured to put an extra effort to earn more. However, one should take into account that the most beautiful things are not associated with money; they are memories and moments. If you don’t celebrate those, they can pass you by.

To summarize, most of the people spend their life working hard earning more either to fulfill their needs or to get more luxury in life.

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Sample 2

Life is changing; load of duties towards people is increasing, leading people to work hard to make extra money to survive in this world. Some people agree and disagree with the idea, that there are reasons why people work hard to earn money.

On one hand, most people these days try their best to work more, to make a lot of money and some agree with it. First, they work hard to support their families provide their needs and expenses. Second, young people start their jobs early, to save money to enjoy their time by traveling or spending money on vacations and activities. Moreover, a number of people in many countries work hard to earn a lot of money, to buy house, have a family and take care of it, addition to secure a good future for them. For example, I started working at age of 15, to earn and save money to have all my needs and be a dependent person. From my side I agree and believe; to be a successful person in this life you must work hard be brave.

On the other hand, some people think the opposite and disagree that they must work and tired themselves to earn money. First, people believe that they need to live a normal life, without difficulties and harming their health, for not taking a break to enjoy the moment. Second, money for some human being isn’t everything, they prefer to do their job and spend their free time with family, friends and be happy. However, some rich people, wish if they can live the same way as all people and give their time to their family and live each day by day. For example, one of my friends, all he cares about is to be next to his kids and wife more than money, he is satisfied about what he’s doing. In my opinion I disagree, where men can control and schedule his life and enjoy every period equally.

In conclusion, humans agree and disagree with the idea they must work hard to make money. In my opinion, to be a man with achievement, you can succeed in working hard, making money, and enjoy your life with your beloved.

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40

Some people think that in order to produce a happy society, it is necessary to ensure that there is only a small difference between the earnings of the richest and poorest. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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With the development of the society, people start to consider how to create a more joyful society. Some of them hold on an idea that narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor can be the best way to improve the life standard. However, I disagree with this point to some extent. I will give supporting arguments to this view and provide other means to create a more joyful society.

Initially, there is a variety of means making a happier society. For instance, if the government could ensure the rights of citizens, such as fair chance of education, employment and health services, people would feel satisfied with the society. Taking the Asia for example, it has a large population so that it’s a bit different for the governments to preserve human rights. Some people who are mediate-class even lower, they need to obey the rule standing in a line to wait for called in hospital, whereas, some rich people who are up-class have the privilege. Even in terms of education, some poor family cannot enjoy the education rights so the children can’t receive good education, which is not helpful to enhance the whole sense of happiness.

Moreover, narrowing the gap between the richest and the poorest may can result in social decay to some extent. Money is a great motivator for most people because they can improve the life standards and gain a sense of accomplishment. However, the rich may not have the incentive to work harder and enterprises are also not willing to set up a business, which is not conducive to social development. As a result, people may be unhappy with social decay.

On the other hand, there’s no deny that it is useful to way to develop a happier society. Paying tax can have important implications to a society. We should recognize that the government can achieve the goal of income redistribution by taxation. For example, in many countries the high income group needs to pay more high tax, while the low income group gets assistance from the government, which not only can balance the gap in income, but also enhance people’s happiness.

Overall, I am convinced that bridge the gap is a great way to improve life standards, but is not the only excellent approach, there are various means making a happier society.

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Sample Answer 2

There is no doubt that the gap present clearly today between the poor and the rich is getting wider by time and is affecting our way of life.

That was only observed in the past in some communities where the wealth of a country was restricted to a few powerful and connected people. They used to own more than eighty percent of the resources and income, while the rest is barely enough for the common people. Nowadays, the difference is significant but not limited to the societies finest. The society is divided into groups, the rich, the poor and the few managing to enjoy some of the rich benefits but struggling to keep this level, they are bouncing between the limits of each of the other groups.

As a result of today’s situation, a broadband of the poor are striving to get a fair share of prosperity with no actual hope, the fabric of the society is getting weaker and therefore each group is more colonized to itself forming new habits and customs. Bridging this gap can only be done if equality was achieved in the basic needs like education and healthcare. If an acceptable ease was managed for the common people in their daily routines like public transportations and business facilities, that would also be helpful. There must be transparent laws to manage the use of the wealth and the equality of sharing it and monitor any possible corruption. The sense of equal opportunity has to be delivered and believed by all people.

Briefly, no community can prosper and evolve safely unless the gaps are bridged between people at all aspects giving a fair chance to everyone to live in comfort if they worked reasonably hard to achieve it.

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Sample Answer 3

The amount of income of people is always an important topic in social sciences. Equilibrium of society depends on how this income is shared among the people. Sadly, with the start of the 1950s, the gap between poor and rich has become wider and nowadays this gap has reached its peak point.

The reason of this situation is the structure of our business system we have constructed over years. This economic model is called ‘Capitalism’. Needless to say, the word Capitalism is the derivative of Capital and obliviously, one who has capital has the chance to improve his business and obtain welfare. On the other hand, poor guys are less likely to build a business because of the absence of capital. One of the ugliest results of this system is that this system makes people simply greedy. The community has started to think true happiness can be reached only with more money. Another problem we face in this system is consumerism which means to have a good stable mood it is obligatory to consume more and more. In future, if this economic model preserves itself, it can lead to anarchy which may results disasters and deaths of many innocents.

To improve our lives, to beat this endless unhappiness, we should teach our children the importance of social justice. This problem is not going to be solved in following several years. In the long run, we should change the way how we understand about life. We must alter the roots and dynamics of our community. Nevertheless, we should preserve our hope because human being had solved much more difficult problems in the history. There is a great number of people who are aware of this problem.

A modern social and economic structure should be formed to address this issue. The government policy to help the poor should be more emphasized and education in a country should be free so that poor people can make their children educated. This educational opportunity can play a huge role to mitigate this eminent gap.

In conclusion, the social and economic formation and revolutionary changed in current capitalism is required to eliminate the gap between the poor and rich. More than three-fourth of wealth is owned by only 15% of the total population in the world. This is an unfair distribution and if not addressed carefully would only create chaos in the future.

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Sample Answer 4

It is true that nowadays the difference between the wealthy and the poor is increasing: the wealth is growing, while the poor are going deeper into debts.

We must acknowledge that life for some categories of the population is extremely hard. It does not mean that they are people who have never worked in life or those with anti-social behaviour like drug or alcohol addicted. I read in “Gold Coast Bulletin” that 700 households in Queensland had been disconnected from electricity in the past 3 months because they had not been able to pay the bills. It is true that it is more complicated for these citizens to survive and adopt, as the cost of living is unreasonably high.

On the other hand, 1% of Earth’s population owns as much money as the rest 99%, which is absolutely unfair. I doubt that all of them have inherited their wealth or have been working hard for decades. The names of two wealthiest families –the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers are known to everybody. The ways of getting such enormous sums are not always legal, but the society prefers to ignore such facts.

Moreover, these people do not only live in multi-million mansions, drive luxurious cars, eat in sophisticated restaurants, but they constantly show off their money, which many people find offensive and irritating. Instead of spending a fortune on useless things, why are not they involved in charity more? If they have billions of dollars and do not know what else to purchase to attract others’ attention, why do not their share a half of their wealth? They will not become poorer, while the lives of less lucky ones can be transformed, and these people can at least get a chance.  The whole society would benefit because of that as the crime level would descend.

Overall, the gap between the rich and the poor is becoming more dramatic, if the Governments do not take immediate actions, it is going to grow in future as well.

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Sample Answer 5

The economic differences in the society create inequality among the people. The differences between the rich people and the poor people’s income are increasing in the recent years. The reason for them can be classified into the improper government policies and the individual’s talents.

Tax policies introduced by the governments are favorable for the high net worth people to evade the tax. For instance, entrepreneurs have different tax slabs that make them avail tax exemptions like, opening an office in a special economy zone can result in good savings and increase in profit. However, we cannot discount the individual talents in making enormous profits.

Talent is something that can be acquired by experience or inherited from the family. There are several startup companies created by talented individuals who make it to the rich people category in a matter of few years. In addition, there are few interesting people from the wealthy segment who use their talents to bridge the income gap between the rich and poor.

For example, the companies like Microsoft and Google are spending the hard earned money for the betterment of the society by investing in child education and infrastructure. If all the organisations and the individuals spend a fraction of their enormous income in the country’s infrastructure, education and economic growth, then there are bright chances to fill in the gap of the income difference.

I firmly believe that rich people spending the money on improving the lifestyle of poor people and better government tax policies will increase the chances of closing the income difference between the rich and poor.

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Sample Answer 6

It is true that nowadays rich people are getting even richer and poor people have become poorer especially in developing countries. This situation has presented a wide variety of problems to the community and it has negatively affected a country’s developments. To tackle these problems I believe that governments and authorities should take necessary steps and implement laws to improve the living standards of financially poor people.

To begin with, studies have shown that poverty and crimes are correlated owing to the fact that people are committing crimes for earning a living. Furthermore, children’s of poorer parents are often not able to access higher education even they may have talents in their studies. As a result, they are not hired for a wealthy job. This means that probably they will live their lives under uncomfortable circumstances and poverty. That will present uncertainty in one country. Moreover, the public health of one country would be deteriorated if people in one country are living in extreme poverty.

To tackle these worrying concerns governments should need to do more works for minimizing the gap between poorer people and richer people. Firstly, governments should provide financial support for people who are living under uncomfortable financial circumstances. Secondly, governments should ensure the quality of education to all of their citizens. That will definitely help to reduce the poverty as well as increasing the living standards of financially poor families. Finally, developed countries should take more responsibility and efforts to eradicate poverty from the world. These efforts already have been seen in some African countries and that have helped many people to increase their living standards.

To conclude I believe that we as a human everyone has rights to get an access to the education and a quality life. In addition, education is the most useful weapon to fight against poverty. In this sense, governments should ensure a quality of education to all of their citizens. That will certainly help to reduce the gap between richer and poorer people.

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Sample Answer 7

In this day and age, the gap between affluent and destitute is becoming increasingly wider. This surging wave of differences among people leads to some problems, which are elucidated below. However, these are not an insurmountable problem if the government takes some suitable measure.

The most significant problem is that the rent of crime will increase because in wretched families both parents should work outdoor and cannot pay enough attention to their children. As a result, these kids will grow up in an improper way and almost all of them are serious dangers for society in the future. In addition, these poor families always think that wealthy families spoil their rights and so they want to revenge with theft or harshness from them.

The next problem in this situation is that illiteracy will be common since needy cannot afford the cost of education. Therefore, their future becomes blurred as they do not get a quality education. This deprivation (lack of education) causes their tendency to lawlessness and violence become more.

While that the problems mention above, there are some solutions that can be taken to reduce the problems. Firstly, governments should impose a heavy tax for affluent persons and spend these gain money for improving the destitute lives. Also, governments can prepare the facilities of education, free of charge for poor children.

In conclusion, today it is apparent that the gap between poor and wealthy is dramatic. However, this situation should not ignore, because it creates some serious such as surging rate of crime and illiteracy. The government can reduce this gap with some proper measures by taking prudent decisions.

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41

Since most information about culture and history can be found online, museums are no longer needed. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Nowadays, the internet is used by many people to find detailed information about history and culture. It is claimed by some that museums are no longer required as all the information is available on the internet. I personally disagree with this. The following paragraphs essay will discuss why museums are essential.

To begin with, no one can deny the fact that people cannot physically see historical artifacts on the internet. It only provides photos which most of the time are not enough to understand the actual size and beauty of the artifacts or sculptures. For example, in order to gauge the actual size of the biggest sword made in the 19th century, you have to see it in person. Photos on the screen can never give an accurate idea of the size. Secondly, every bit of information available on internet may not be true as some websites put up wrong information for their benefit. Conversely, museums contain information curated by the government and history experts. This will help people get actual understanding of historical events.

In addition, museums buttress economic development in the city. To explain it in detail, the fees collected from visitors of museums would increase the revenue of the government. It is not only a source of income for the government, but also provides entertainment to some people. Historical museum buildings attract a plethora of visitors. For instance, science and industry museum in Chicago attracted 1 million visitors last year. This increased the popularity of Chicago around the world.

From what have been discussed above, I strongly disagree with the idea that museums are not required. In my opinion, the internet will never be able to physically show things. Museums provide true representation of history, culture and religion which would not be possible with internet.

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Sample 2

Museums are often considered as a beautiful reflection of a country’s glorious past. As the internet can provide a gigantic treasure of information about a nation‘s history and culture, museums are being tagged as unnecessary these days. I do not agree with this view.

In my opinion, museums should be preserved as a sign of heritage since data on the internet cannot match the true essence of actual visual experience. To begin with, art galleries and museums house the cultural and traditional assets of any nation. Some of these are in the shape of sculptures; some are in the form of paintings. Several museums have preserved ancient things which are a sign of pride and prestige for the nation and its citizen. The information provided on the internet does not create the same amount of curiosity and inquisitiveness among people as the actual visualization of these things at the museum. Therefore, rather than sidelining the requirement of conserving museums, these must be refurbished to garner the attention of maximum people.

Concomitantly, museums are places of tourist attraction. These places fascinate locals as well as foreign tourists alike. Although museums have nominal entry fees, still it contributes to the revenue of a nation, eventually, giving an economic boost to a country. This will be affected if people are encouraged to view information about culture and history online. In addition to that, information on the internet can sometimes be dubious as there are a number of unauthentic sites and it becomes tough to keep a check on what is being uploaded online. Any incorrect story can seriously impact the country’s reputation; hence, efforts must be made to save the integrity of museums.

To conclude, a nation’s historical and cultural treasures abound in museums and art galleries; therefore, these must be maintained and any knowledge available online should be only for reference purposes.

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42

Scientific research should be funded by governments rather than commercial organisations. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Scientific research plays a very important role in the progress of a nation. It is argued that research should be controlled and funded by the government, and not private organisations or institutions. This essay agrees with the argument that the government should carry out various research works in different fields and will outline the reasons why government should be responsible for research projects.

There are several reasons to support my view point. Firstly, the government is capable of providing financial assistance to various research projects. Moreover, if the project fails to achieve its objectives, the government has the resources to cope up with the losses incurred. Secondly, the main motive of the government in conducting research is public welfare. Thirdly, when government funds research activities, there is utmost security. They do not disclose any information which could hamper national security. That is why research and development in the field of military is carried out by the government.

When private organisations conduct research, their chief concern is protecting their interests. This explains why the research conducted by coffee companies or gum companies only highlights the benefits of their products. This is not the case when the government funds research. In this case, the final verdict is more likely to be unbiased.

To conclude, after analyzing the various aspects of the argument, it is not hard to see that the government funding of research is in the interests of the public. Private organizations, on the other hand, may have their own vexed interests to protect.

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Sample 2

The only way an individual can progress is by having a strong and effective scientific research. But in recent times, some people believe that it must be done by private, while others believe that it is the sole responsibility of government. In my opinion, a better research is possible only if government and private institutions join hands together.

The government organisations are driven by the need to make advances in knowledge in order to improve people’s lives. So, the funding for a research would be only made if it is for the better of the individual. However, private institutions are driven by profit. So, they are more likely to invest in a project that will give more benefits.

Even more, if the funding for research comes from one organisation we are more likely to get biased results. For instance, government will release a particular drug only after testing it well; this often takes more time than necessary.  The companies have large amounts of money invested in such research and the need for positive results is paramount. It is difficult for a scientist to remain impartial in these circumstances.

Overall, in my opinion, side lining one kind of funding might not be the best possible thing to do. This would result in an upheaval, the best way would be to utilize the benefits of government funding for poor and those of private to make some profits.

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Sample 3

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Country growth and development depend upon its advancement in technology and scientific research. From few years, private organisations come forward and funding the scientific research and also control them. While there are some arguments in favour of scientific research by corporations, I agree with the statement that government should carry out various research works and I would outline the reasons why the government should responsible for research projects.

There are many reasons why the government should responsible for research work. First is, all scientific researches required much funding, so only the government is capable of providing financial support to various experimental projects. Second is, there is a high risk of project failure. If private organisation give money for the project and unfortunately it does not work correctly, then the whole company will be destroyed because the company does not have the strength to bear significant losses, but the government can cope up with the losses incurred. Moreover, another reason is, when the government funds the project, officers also give utmost security. They do not want to disclose any information because it can hamper national security. So the only government is capable of providing high security.

There are many private companies which want to do scientific research, but there are two significant dangers in this. It is an accepted fact that in this competition era every organisation wants to beat another one so for that they do all the work in a hurry and as the result project quality may be lost and it sometimes gives profit to the company but prove harmful for the public. So if the government permits private companies, then they must be strictly monitored by the government and set rules for them through which private organisation can produce a product or do research.

To conclude, after analyzing all the aspects of the argument, it is not hard to see that the government funding of research is in the interests of the public, but if government permit private companies for research, then they have vigorous checks need to be in place to ensure future research is ethical and productive.

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Model Answer 4

Scientific research plays a vital role in the advancement of a country. It is argued that research ought to be controlled and financed by the government, rather than private organisations or institutions. This essay agrees with the argument that the government should carry out various research functions in various fields and will outline the reasons why the government should be responsible for research projects.

There are several reasons to support my viewpoint. First, the government is capable of providing financial help to several research projects. Furthermore, if the project fails to achieve its objectives, the government has the resources to cope up with the losses incurred. Second, the main motive of the government in conducting research is public welfare. Thirdly, when government funds research activities, there is utmost security. They do not disclose any information that could hamper national security. That is why the government performs research and development in the sphere of the military.

When private businesses conduct research, their chief concern is protecting their interests. This explains why the study conducted by coffee companies or gum companies only highlights the advantages of their products. This is not the case when the government funds research. In cases like this, the final verdict is more likely to be unbiased.

In conclusion, after analyzing the various aspects of the argument, it is not tough to see that the government financing of research is in the interests of the public. Private organisations, on the other hand, may have their vexed interests to protect.

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43

Some children find some particular school subjects difficult (for example maths or philosophy), so these subjects should be optional rather than compulsory. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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There is no doubt that some students struggle to learning subjects as mathematics or philosophy. Therefore, it is claimed that pupils ought to choose whether or not to learn them. This essay completely disagrees with this statement and will develop a reasoned opinion why these subjects should be taught for all students.

To begin with, mathematics and philosophy are paramount subjects to learn how to develop a normal life. This is because math is present in all aspects of life; everything we do is based on a number. For example, the simply act of buying a product in a supermarket demand a person to sum or multiplication in order to complete the payment. In addition, learning philosophy is vital to learn how to develop a critically thinking. To illustrate this, in order to discuss a problem, the brain has to analyze it in advance, and this is taught in philosophy.

On the other hand, many people believe that these skills should be optional and schools should promote personalized learning. Hence, pupils could be able to learn and boost different skills depending on their individual abilities. As a consequence, they would be more likely to achieve a higher academic level. For example, if a children strength is biology, he could be taught this subject in more detail with a personalized plan that boost his knowledge and thus become expert in this field. Despite this attractive benefit of leaving some subjects apart, I think that such as math and philosophy are vital for learning those others. For instance, in the cycle of Krebs in biology, is extremely important to know how to multiply the number of molecules in order to understand the process.

To conclude, although learning individualized subjects can enhance the level of education of a student, I believe that subjects such as math and philosophy are paramount for making a proper living.

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Sample 2

There is no denying the fact that subjects like mathematics and philosophy are difficult for many students. This, however, does not mean that they should be made optional. Children need to master at least the basic concepts of these subjects to be able to get on with their lives.

Not all students want to be engineers or bank managers. They don’t have to be either but they should still be able to do addition and subtraction. They should understand the concepts of multiplication and division. If they lack these skills, they will find it difficult to manage their everyday life.

Mathematics plays a very important role in our life. Children will not remain children for life. The will become adults a few years down the lane and then they have to manage their finances. Students who didn’t study mathematics at school will not be able to take care of their finances. The fact that they don’t have even basic math skills will also affect their employability. No employer will hire someone who can’t even solve simple sums.

The same is true in the case of philosophy as well. It is not a subject that many students can digest. However, it offers a better perspective on life and helps us to cope with the ups and downs of life.

The existing education system allows students to choose subjects of their preference when they start university education. In my opinion, children should be taught all subjects at the school level. They can choose subjects of their preference when they go for higher education.

To conclude, I strongly disagree with the view that subjects like mathematics and philosophy should be made optional because such a decision will do students more harm than good.

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44

In recent years, television has contributed most to changing people’s quality of life. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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In the wake of technological advancement, Television proved to be an effective way of media. I agree that people’s quality of life has been affected by TV programs in many aspects. This will be shown by analyzing how TV impacted watchers’ cultural and foreign language deficiency as well as person’s life style.

Firstly, TV shows helps audience to acquire brief overview about how inhabitants of other parts of the world live. Nowadays, with the availability of satellites, each TV screen can display various shows and documentary movies done by people from other nationalities and cultural backgrounds. These would help individuals to get to know about traditions, life style and beliefs of other communities, and thus narrow the cultural gap between societies. Such Information was hardly to get before invention of TV. For instance, I knew a lot about the Chinese customs from watching the famous TV series, The Orientals. Furthermore, TV comprises an invaluable tool for teaching foreign languages. There are bunch of programs produced in diverse languages by native speakers around the world which would assist in learning the proper pronunciation and vocabulary. Personally, I used to watch a well-known TV show, namely Mind Your Language, to master the British accent. On the other hand, in the pre-TV era people would travel overseas or mingle with tourists to attain the same benefit. Clearly, the aforementioned benefits would have been difficult to gain in the pre-TV period.

Secondly, watching TV transformed the life style of people. The TV is considered as an enticing recreation time for many, therefore some people started to have some sort of addiction to TV and attend it in excess on daily basis; As a result, those people become gradually less physically active. A survey done by Cambridge University in 2016 found that 50% of adults spent 3-4 hours-a-day in front of TV screens. Additionally, TV affected the social interaction between people. In the past decades, as told by my grandparents, when there was no TV, people used to meet each other in their free time and make friendships. In contrast, nowadays there is an increasing tendency among people to choose TV over going out; eventually they might become socially secluded. Hence, it is obvious how the TV altered the active and social life style of certain proportion of people.

In conclusion, I firmly believe that the introduction of TV has brought changes to human life in both positive and negative ways.

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Sample 2

There is no doubt that broadcast plays an essential role in modern life especially, television which can influence on spectators’ worldviews by showing different variety of performances such as news, films or serials, and shows as an entertainment program as well. In fact, people “who are absorbed by these kind of television patterns” waste their most leisure time in front of the box instead of doing other beneficial activities for their both health and income aspects. In my opinion, I should support the statement because of following reasons:

First of all, the introduction of television has affected people’s attitude to their daily life activities, for instance, traditional behavior with its 24/7 process. As a matter of fact, people “when they have breakfast, lunch, and supper even at the family table in the evenings” can not stand abandoning television programs rather than talking over the day. As a consequence, the kindness among households is lessening.

Secondly, people have made an adaptation to be willing to taste whatever they are aware of emotional or romantic performance what they watched. Unsurprisingly, some particular films which consist of mentally extreme episodes or full of corruption, trouble-making episodes may lead people after them.

Finally, turning to convenient side of television can be found as many as sphere for example, people can be aware about the latest news even it has occurred another angle of the planet. Moreover, there are many sets which are related to encouraging people’s spirit. As for the positive side of television, I would point to a number of spheres where it has turned out to be quite beneficial

To sum up, I believe than television has managed to alter people’s lives both pros and cons sides by affecting reasonably as I pen down aforementioned reasons.

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Model Answer 3

Technology has been fascinating the mankind for decades now. Television is such marvels of modern technology. It is agreed that television has changed the quality of life of an ordinary person. This will be proved by looking at television’s ability to, alleviate boredom, and empower people.

To begin, television has provided humans with a viable past time without even leaving the comfort of their homes. For instance, instead of going through the hassle of getting to a movie theatre, a person can simply order a pay per view movie of their own choice by merely dialing few digits from their telephone. This luxury was not available to our ancestors, who didn’t have the blessing of television bestowed upon them and as a result had to endure a painstaking amount of boredom in their spare time. Thus, with television, the life quality of an ordinary person has made a quantum leap.

Furthermore, since the inception of television, informative programs have been empowering ordinary people to take actions which have the potential to change the course of their lives. For instance, it was through one such television program, that I came to know about the power of a human’s subconscious mind, which ultimately helped me to, admonish all limiting beliefs that I had about my abilities, and lead a much happier and  fulfilling life. Because these kinds of television programs are dime a dozen in today’s world, enriching one’s life is not as hard as it used to be. This makes it clear, that television indeed has enhanced the quality of an ordinary individual.

Following the analysis of television’s capability to disseminate knowledge and provision of pleasure, it is manifested that with the help of television, an ordinary person’s life has taken a drastic turn for the better. It is expected that people will continue to bear fruits of this technological masterpiece.

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45

Many people depend on cars in their day-to-day life (for example, to drive to work). However, unrestricted car use has led to a number of problems. What are these problems? Should individuals be discouraged from using cars in order to reduce them?

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Most families in the developed countries own at least one car. The situation is not much different in the developing countries either. Needless to say, the number of people who rely on public transport is declining. It is true that almost all of us want to own a car. Busy highways are also considered to be a sign of a developed economy. However, an increase in the usage of private cars is not exactly a positive trend.

When more and more cars hit the roads, there is an increase in vehicular pollution. The quality of air in cities is already bad. An increase in the number of cars will make the situation even worse. Atmospheric pollution can lead to global warming. When average temperatures rise, they cause drastic changes in weather patterns across the world. What’s more when the quality of air decreases, there is an increase in the incidences of respiratory diseases.

Although technology has significantly advanced in the last few decades, cars and other vehicles are still run on fossil fuels like petrol and diesel. These are not renewable sources of energy and are getting used up fast. In many countries fuel prices are already pretty high. A further depletion in the reserves of fossil fuels will make petrol and diesel costlier. In such a scenario, even public transport systems will be unaffordable. This will badly affect the poor.

An increase in the number of private cars also leads to more accidents. Countless lives are lost in accidents every day. This is clearly an indication that our existing infrastructure is incapable of handling more vehicles.

Since cars are a status symbol, it is not easy to dissuade people from buying them. However, governments can encourage more people to depend on the public transport system by upgrading their quality and reliability. If trains and buses arrive on time, more people will depend on them. Carpooling is another option. People who work in the same office can share car journeys. By doing this they can not only reduce their fuel expenses, but also make the roads a little less busy and hence safer.

In conclusion, a rise in the number of private cars leads to several problems. However, the governments can improve the situation by making public transport systems more reliable.

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Model Answer 2

Nowadays, the usage of own means of transport is very common in the modern societies. It creates the problem of traffic congestion and pollution all over the world. However, the use of public transport is one of the possible solutions to deal with this issue.

Firstly, overuse of private cars leads to traffic congestion. Every person has their own car, which means creating a lot of traffic. For instance, in metro cities, it is often seen that there is traffic jam more than an hour and people are blowing the horns, thus worsening the situation. Ultimately, all this cause frustration and stress for the people who cannot reach at their workplaces in due time. Moreover, the sound and environmental pollutions are increasing.

Secondly, more motor vehicles mean more pollution. The harmful gases exhausted from the vehicle results in air pollution and leads to various health problems for example, respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and so on. Moreover, ozone layer depletion as a consequence of pollution can cause skin problems.

The possible solution to these problems is to maximize the use of public transport. The government should aware the people to use public transport and put emphasis to legally control the private transportation. Furthermore, the use of public transport also saves the expenditure which we spend on buying own means of transportation.

To conclude, traffic congestion and pollution are the arising problems of extensive use of private means of transportation. Nevertheless, the use of public transport is the one way to resolve the problems. Both Government and individual should come forward to tackle this issue and make their place better to live.

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Model Answer 3

In today’s modern world, the number of private cars is increasing tremendously following the development of technology.  It, inevitably, causes many unanticipated negative consequences on people’s lives due to the overreliance on their cars even for a short distance journey. Therefore, it is important for us to establish the possible side effects on our lives and also the effective measures to cope with this problem.

Admittedly, there are a number of unwanted negative impacts of overuse of private cars. To begin, the physical strength of people will decline over the years and it becomes more noticeable in the late adulthood. People nowadays are too dependent on their own vehicles which cause them to have limited time to exercise so as to maintain good health. Thus, it is not uncommon that many of them to fall in sick easily, especially the children who are vulnerable to diseases. Furthermore, with the increasing number of private cars, traffic problems may become more severe in big cities it may also cause air pollution. People have to spend more time while travelling from one place to another due to heavy traffic jam. In addition, air pollution may have side effects on people’s health when they inhale the unfiltered exhaust gases from vehicles.

Nevertheless, there are tons of ways which could prove useful and effective in curbing this problem. Firstly, city inhabitants should strive to reduce their dependency on cars. To illustrate, they can choose to brisk walk to the shops nearby whenever they need to buy groceries without driving. It is indirectly giving a valuable opportunity for them to exercise so as to rebuild their bodies and regain health. Besides, it is advisable for the government to promote car pool. It is proven to be one of the effective ways to solve this problem, not only it will reduce the traffic problems which they are now facing every day in a city, but also reduce the exposal of waste effluents from the cars. Sooner or later, they will be able to live healthily in the near future.

In conclusion, there are several unanticipated problems that are caused by overreliance on private cars; however, there are numerous effective ways to tackle this problem. I believe the citizens of our nation will be free from the negative side effects of this problem one day provided every individual cooperates and practice the stated ways.

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Model Answer 4

Usages of private vehicles as the main transportation media is rife and has grown abundantly among citizens. This reliance on private cars, somehow, can trigger several impacts, for instances, increasing traffic jam and elevating air pollution. These problems will be elaborated through the following paragraphs.

Traffic jam is considered as the impact of an imbalanced capacity of roads towards the number of cars and other means of transportation. As vehicle and other commuter lines grow significantly, moreover, when people tend to use their personal cars which obviously increase the quantity of vehicle on road, the road cannot provide fair space to allow all cars running smoothly. As a result, people have to encounter the traffic jam.

Despite traffic jam, air pollution also becomes classic problem of car growth. The higher the rate of cars operated, the higher the amount of residual fume produced by motor activities. This phenomenon can elevate the amount of CO2 in the air which contributes major pollutant in the air pollution and damage people’s health.

In my point of view, one of the solutions dealing with this traffic issue is by increasing tax payment for private cars and motorcycle. Imposing high tax for private vehicle users will affect their judgment in using their cars as they have to spend extra money to run their own vehicles. Whitehorse city, for example, has managed to give higher tax for personal car users and as the fact, citizen there prefer using public buses than private cars due to less cost paid for public bus transport.

All in all, reliance on private cars can improve traffic problems and pollution. Nevertheless, by implementing discretion of higher tax for personal car user, it can help coping with this problem.

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46

People today rarely interact with their neighbours, and this is having a harmful effect on local communities. What are the possible causes of this trend? What can be done to address it?

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The famous axiom love thy neighbour is no longer pertinent as people rarely communicate with their neighbours. This negative trend affects the harmony amongst communities. While hectic work and family commitments are often singled out as the possible causes, there are also other factors associated with it which definitely have viable solutions.

To begin with, in this competitive era, man is already struggling to strike work-life balance. In this scenario to expect a person to find time for neighbours is forthrightly frivolous. Secondly, even if people get time, they prefer spending it indulging in their favourite leisure activities rather than socializing with people in the vicinity. In addition to that, children were often considered as connecting links between neighbours. With fewer children playing out together these days, the interaction between the parents has also declined. Furthermore, crime based serials has led people to distrust any new person in the neighbourhood. This further limits their interactions.

On the bright side, there are many viable solutions to this problem. One possible solution is having a community centre or a club and organising weekly or monthly get-togethers. A committee should be formed with convincing and influential members who can motivate others to participate in these meetings. Moreover, parks and playgrounds should be constructed for children and adults to encourage them to relinquish the comforts of their home and interact with their neighbours. Although it is good to have a watchful eye after careful scrutiny a friendly approach should be made to any new family next door.

To conclude, it is difficult to find time for neighbours because of several reasons still efforts must be made to create a bond as neighbours are like extended family and they are the ones who offer help in dire circumstances.

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Sample 2

It is true that lack of communication between the nearest will damage the strengthening of the community. In this essay we will discuss the main causes and the solutions to avoid this from getting further.

I believe one of the main reasons for this is poor planning of the public infrastructure. As an example, remote towns sometimes do not have gyms or playgrounds so that residents more likely to avoid going out and do fitness activities or picnics. Another reason is poor organisation of public activities such as book fairs, festivals and weekly neighbourhood meetings and because of this, residents who lives next to each other sometimes doesn’t know who lives in next-door and this could be a very serious issue in the event of an emergency.

As a solution for the above-mentioned reasons I believe improving public infrastructure will play a main role of community building. As an example, building gyms and public parks will influence the people from using these places and as a result, residents will get to know each other. While improving the public infrastructure planning, social activities such as book fairs, urban council meetings and musical shows will greatly beneficial for communities to engage in those activities as well.

In conclusion, planning of public infrastructure and organising crowd activities will be beneficial to solve the main causes of damaging community building. As a citizen myself, I believe government and urban council have a great responsibility upon this issue to mitigate such issues and strengthening of the community.

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Sample 3

In modern life humans can survive only create a social group from close people are lived around them, that can be destroyed without positive communicating between themself. This is mainly because people need a safe place where can have rest, getting help from others and express him.

The two main possible causes that can make damage to the community are busy lifestyle and independence. Lifestyle quality directly independent of graduate and income, that costs him a lot of time out home. For example, doctors have an extra salary in the world, however, they have to eat and sleep in a hospital because their time equals the saved human lives. The second important factor that contributes to the deteriorating of the rallying neighbors is a wish to be independent, that means be capable to solve any problem by self. For instance, a successful actor has huge money that gives him an opportunity to pay off any service. There are two effective solutions to the problem of destroying society group.

One way to downshift lifestyle for busy people is that they give time for social life. For example, some companies approve flexible work hours with the same salary. Another method of dealing with young individuals who can get a habit to interconnect with other members of society is by benefits from the community. As an example, such a bonus can be a part-time job is getting from neighbors or a church.

To conclude, the community building is harmed even just stop interacting between neighbors include communicate, help and develop the social links. If you would like to have safety neighborhood and positive space for bringing up children you must grow up your street band.

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47

Despite the environmental concerns raised by scientists, people are still not changing their lifestyles. Why is this? What can be done to encourage people to protect the environment more?

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Without a shadow of a doubt, our planet is in grave crisis. Notwithstanding environmental concerns expressed by scientists and green parties, many people do not change their way of life. The essay will look at why people do not change their lifestyle and how they can be encouraged to protect the environment.

People do not revise their lifestyle due to two major reasons: knowledge deficit and consumerist culture. There is a deficit in people’s knowledge of environmental chaos. In simple words, they do not have adequate comprehension of scientific consensus. A recent study has revealed that 25 per cent British continue to be dismissive and sceptical of the consequence of global warming. Apart from it, people succumb to consumerist culture, a culture that values transience more than duration and stability. In this consumerist culture, for example, people tend to be on-trend with vogue, hairstyle, and electronic gadget are discarding old ones; which in turn contribute to environmental damage. Therefore, they continue their existing lifestyle.

We should, however, mount a global campaign to prompt everyone to change their lifestyle: food habit, shopping habit, uses of energy and so on. We ought to launch a sustained campaign against genetically modified food so that people only purchase organic fruit and vegetables, which in turn encourages farmers to avoid pesticides and chemical fertilizers and will ameliorate pollution accordingly. Likewise, we should ensure our purchased products packaged in biodegradable packaging. Similarly, individuals can consider the way they operate to diminish their impact on the environment. They, for instance, can use recycled products, switch to the green energy supplier, or use telecommuting to cut down on travel, and so forth.

To conclude, a variety of environmental issues affect our entire globe as it has never been before. Therefore, we ought to play our role and look at the ways of minimizing our negative impacts on the environment.

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Sample 2

Even after knowing all the impacts of environmental degradation, people still continue to pollute the environment with their activities. This essay will discuss why people are not adapting environmental friendly lifestyle and the ways to motivate people in order to preserve our environment.

In my view, there are two reasons why people are not concerned about their activities towards the environment. First of all, people prefer to live in a convenient way. That is to mean, they choose to adapt a lifestyle which is easy and effortless even if the activity may cause negative consequences. For example, we commute using vehicles such as car rather than a bicycle because cars are faster and require less effort. Secondly, rise in the living standard of people have also forced them to ignore the environmental resources. People are earning enough money with the rise in employment opportunities around the globe. So, this situation has resulted in people fulfilling their luxuries like buying large houses and cars, and neglects the environmental concerns this would cause.

However, some measures can be implemented so as to preserve the environment. Policies can be introduced against people’s increasing demands in order to minimize the effects of them. If people are prevented to continue their luxurious life by the government rules, this will ultimately reduce the impacts of human activities towards the environment. For instance, car ownership can be limited to only one per family so that the all family members will share it and the effects of cars could be minimized. Similarly, awareness should be raised among all nations and their citizens. Although scientists are raising environmental concerns to the public, a lot of people are unaware of it. If awareness programs are launched by a nation, this will make people more aware of their environmental situations.

In conclusion, there are clear reasons why people are found not changing their lifestyle and there are obvious measures which should be adapted to save our environment.

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48

In some countries, criminal trials are shown to the public on television. Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?

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Criminal proceedings are broadcast on television for the general public in certain countries. In my opinion, while this may create awareness about judicial proceedings, the drawbacks of this practice outweigh the benefits.

Admittedly, there are some advantages to showing criminal trials on television. This creates awareness among the common people about the procedures involved in the trial. It also enables people to learn about the various provisions of the law. For example, in most countries, a murder committed in self-defense is not punishable. When people watch these shows they become aware of such aspects of the law. Sometimes the airing of trial procedures also enables people to get justice faster. In many countries, judicial procedures are extremely slow and sometimes it takes several years for victims to get justice. When people learn about such delays through these programs, they may demand speedy delivery of justice.

Nevertheless, the downsides of this practice are more dangerous. For example, it could teach criminals ways to escape from punishment and might also violate human rights. As part of the court hearing, a detailed visualization of the crime scene would be given. Potential criminals may plot similar crimes after watching these proceedings. They may also learn about the loopholes in the law that would help them get away. Another imperative concern is that sometimes young children could be the victim or the culprit. In both cases, showing their faces or family members during the trails may cause psychological disturbance in them as well as in the society. They may face bullying or isolation from the people who watched them on TV. Thus, public hearing on national television tutors the criminals about the loopholes in the system and psychologically affects the victims and the accused.

In conclusion, although there are merits to both sides of this argument, I think that the damage that could happen due to the airing of criminal proceedings would have more detrimental effects on the society than the benefits.

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Sample 2

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In the past few years, we have seen a considerable rise in the broadcasting of criminal hearings on the public television. Although, there are advantages and disadvantages of this trend, however, I opine that telecasting the court proceedings has more drawbacks than the benefits and this essay will discuss them in detail.

Admittedly, there are some basic advantages of showing the criminal trials of television. Firstly, the public can learn a lot about the court proceedings and the legal system of the country by watching them at their homes. In other words, people will have more awareness which can be helpful if they become a victim of any such crime. Secondly, watching the criminal on trial can serve as a warning to others contemplating the crime. As a result, it can help to reduce the crime rate. For example, the United States government reported a 15% decline in the wrongdoing among youngsters in 2017 due to the televising of the law courts.

Nevertheless, despite the above benefits, I believe that showing trials on the television has more drawbacks. One potentially dangerous point is that the public and media pressure might influence the outcome. Furthermore, the jury might not be able to clearly weigh the facts and decide the future of the offender in such situation. Another obvious issue is the coverage that the criminals get which can turn them into TV stars and this can negatively influence young people. As in the case Jay Simpson, for instance, the impact of public opinion was so great on the jury that 5 out 8 members decided to leave because of the unbearable pressure.

By way of conclusion, despite the advantages, the drawbacks of an open television trial could be devastating due to the public and media pressure which might result in a lack of justice.

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49

In the modern world, it is possible to shop, work, and communicate online without any face-to-face contact with other people. Is this a positive or negative development?

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Owing to the digitalization, these days, many activities are possible without any physical interactions. Although digital ways of shopping, working, and communicating are convenient and economical, in my opinion, their detrimental effects such as relationship conflicts and risk of fraudulence make them a negative development.

Undoubtedly, due to the surge in digital technology, people can now save time and money and lead a comfortable life. This is because of multiple reasons. Firstly, with the help of online shopping people can receive their favorite items at their doorsteps in no time with just a few clicks on mobile. As a result, they can save a huge expenditure on petrol consumed for supermarket trips. Secondly, communication has become quite easy and convenient due to the availability of applications such as Skype, WhatsApp, and many more, through which people can communicate with anyone without actually visiting their places. Moreover, digital advancement has benefitted the employees as well, as nowadays, many people work from home using the internet which provides them the comfort of working according to their schedule.

Despite the aforementioned advantages, I believe this is a negative trend due to its numerous drawbacks. Primarily, fewer face-to-face interactions tend to create social and personal differences. To exemplify, according to a study by Hopkins University, 40% of the people are likely to become socially aloof by the end of 2030, owing to the lack of interest in meeting others in person, caused by the huge influx in digital communication. Not only will this lead to issues with personal and social relationships, but it will also lead to people having issues within work because no facial interactions can easily create misunderstandings and conflicts with colleagues. Additionally, online shopping sometimes leads to fraud and misleads. Some fraudulent people hide the true identity of products while representing them online and mislead their customers with fake reviews and ratings.

In conclusion, while digital purchasing, employment, and interaction provide convenience and ease, in my perspective, these developments are more negative because they lead to social alienation and online scams.

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Sample 2

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In our modern society people are easy to access internet today. They can shop, do their work and can communicate to their loved ones most of the time. However, this will have a positive and negative development on both sides. In my opinion it is a negative development.

Firstly, internet is the most accessible thing that can people use in different ways. Individuals can do shopping through online by just clicking the websites. It can use to work because others are working from home. It is also use in communication. There is no such thing what can internet do in our modern world. It is very useful to those oversea workers because they are working in other, countries far from their family to provide the needs of their loved ones back to the country they used to be. It is important to them keep in touch with each other. They can talk even they are not meeting in person by using the electronic devices with a high-speed of internet. That is the good side of having the internet on our lives. Everyone can used it everywhere even at home, school, work or in business. It provides a fastest communication in many people around the world.

On the other hand, there will be a negative side of internet. Most of the children today are not concentrating to their school. They would just want to stay at home doing internet games only. Children and Young adults are the most affecting by using the internet. Instead of going to school they just preferred to do games. It is hard to give them discipline because they feel that playing internet games could benefit them. Another example is individual would learn on how not telling the truth because those people far from each other have the possibility to lie. Some are getting isolated because no one knows what is happening to them. They can have bad influence to others and individuals may suffer to addiction.

In conclusion, using an internet would have a bad effect to children and young adults. There should be a good provision from their parents. Internet will only be helpful in terms of communication.

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50

Nowadays many celebrities receive higher salaries than senior politicians. Why is this?  Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

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There are two main reasons why celebrities generate more income than politicians. One of them is that with the advent of the Internet, there are more ways available for celebrities to earn money, such as online streaming services. For example, singing a song in a YouTube video with some advertisements enables them to easily make a few million dollars. Another cogent reason for this is the growing global concerns over excessively high remuneration for political leaders, which can easily lead to public discontent. In response to such criticism, many governments have decided to reform the reward system for lawmakers, sending their salaries on a downward trend.

I personally believe that this development is relatively negative for several reasons, with the main one being the potential corruption scandals this issue can create. The enormous salary gap between celebrities and political leaders might discourage the legislators from putting in work or even motivate them to commit crimes such as money laundering. In addition, the relatively low salary for stressful jobs of governors may deter people with foresight on politics from becoming politicians. This is particularly undesirable because it would result in low level of citizens’ loyalty to their incompetent government, creating unstable society with more crime and other social problems.

In conclusion, the fact that celebrities are paid more than political leaders now is caused by a wider variety of income sources available to them, and supported by the social norm that a politician should not be a profit driven professional. However, I believe this is a negative trend which may lead to more political corruption and less talented governments.

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Sample 2

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It is true that famous people earn much more money than some of the politicians in some countries. This is because, people are more interested in celebrities than politicians and famous people’s business are much more private than politicians. As for me this is positive development, since becoming celebrities needs much more skills and privileges. In this essay ı will support my views with valid arguments and examples.

As for the reasons, primarily, people don’t have any interest in politicians’ lives or business. For this reasons sometimes they don’t have any knowledge even politicians names. But residents are always eager to know famous people’s life, names or business. That’s why celebrities can easily make much more money with the help of the curious. For instance, when one advisement company organize one concert they always are looking for celebrities for their concerts rather than politicians, because they know that ın this way they might catch the attention of people. So fortunately, celebrities easily get more money than politicians with the help of these types of concerts or organisations. Besides, politician’s salaries depend on governments. For this reasons they don’t have any ability to increase their budgets themselves. But when ıt comes to the celebrities they are working independently. So they might decide their salaries and they go up their budgets whenever they want. For instance, when celebrities think that they need much more money for one month they have a chance to accept much more concerts or organisations than they do. In this way luckily, their budgets can incline steadily, but unfortunately, politicians don’t have chance like this .They need to wait government’s decisions to increase their salaries.

When ıt comes to the developments, above all, people should much more effort for becoming celebrity rather than senior politician because you need to have special features or skills to become celebrity. For instance, you should have special voices for becoming singer or you should have perfect gestures for becoming dancer. But unfortunately, you can easily become politician with your education background. You don’t need to have a privilege. Besides, celebrities work harder than politicians for ımproving their innate skills. This is because they might easily lose their features when they leave it working hard. But unfortunately, politicians don’t have these worries, since they will continue their career without spending much more time and effort.

In conclusion, people are willing to see celebrities than politicians in their lives. This situation stimulates celebrities for earning much more money than senior politicians. Also becoming famous is not short process. Although you have born with some special features you should work hard to improve them. However this situation is not true for the politicians. For this reasons,  celebrities deserve much more salaries than senior politicians.

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Sample 3

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The earning of celebrities is substantially more than that of high-ranking politicians. In this essay I will put forth the reasons for this discrepancy. I believe that it is a negative development overall.

There are many reasons why celebs earn a lot more than politicians these days. The main reason is that they have talent and they work extremely hard to keep up that talent. Even among the talented, very few get the celebrity status. The second reason is that celebs have very short career spans. For example, a sportsperson or a film star earns a maximum 15-20 years. They earn till they work, and once they are out of work their earning sees a full stop. They don’t get any pension like in other professions. In addition, they have stressful lives and have to remain away from their families for weeks or months at a stretch.

The big difference in the earning of politicians and celebs is negative because of many reasons. First, because of less pay, many politicians shirk work. More pay would produce more attentive public servants. Secondly, high salaries would work as anti-corruption measures. For example, in Singapore the prime minister earns $1.7 million a year, which is four times more than the salary of the US president. These high salaries in Singapore, apart from decreasing corruption, are also seen to attract the best talent, who would otherwise go into finance or computing. High salaries have seen these politicians more eager to represent their constituents’ interests.

Moreover, politicians also sacrifice their personal lives just as celebs do to serve the public. They have no time for themselves and their families and at times have to remain away for days at a stretch. They are also always surrounded by the paparazzi and cannot enjoy life like a common man. Their career span as a politician is also very small and they need security as their lives are at a risk from anti-social elements. Therefore, these politicians should be paid more, as they are also no less than any other celebs.

To sum up, there are many reasons why the celebs are earning a lot more than politicians. I believe this discrepancy is negative on a whole.

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51

Throughout history, people have dreamed of living in a perfect society but nobody has agreed on what an ideal society would look like. What do you think is the most important element needed to make a society perfect? How can the ideal society be achieved?

Model Essay 1:

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Most people in the world have a dream to live in an ideal society and lead a happy and meaningful life. However, they do not have the same idea about what the perfect society would look like. I personally think that there are three indicators that can measure the perfection of a society in the modern world: social value, proper infrastructure and employment opportunity. This essay discusses these factors and the ways to achieve that ideal society followed by the examples.

Firstly, social value and social bonding among people is the most important aspect of a perfect society. In a society where people have a strong bonding and obey the social norms tend to lead a better life. Society is formed with many families. If the family members are close and have a better relationship, they would form a better society. A perfect society must have people with human quality and good social behaviours.

Secondly, having good infrastructures and services can be one of the requirements of a perfect society. People need the infrastructures and public services to fulfill their necessity. Take people living in Melbourne as an example. Melbourne is claimed as a most livable city in the world and the people can be classified to live in a perfect society. This country has so many modern infrastructures, for example, modern public health centre, school, bus stop, and others as well as good services in the airport, local government office, etc. This ideal condition can be achieved if the people pay the tax regularly and obey the rules. The tax payment becomes a resource to build good and complete facilities for society. Furthermore, if the society obeys the regulation, they will not have problems with the services of people.

Thirdly, an ideal society needs sufficient job fields to work in. People can fulfill their needs by having a good salary from their work and have a good career in the future.  For example, people in Los Angeles spend most their time for working and have a good financial condition. This situation can be created by the society if people can be an entrepreneur. By being an entrepreneur, they can create new work fields for others and reduce the number of unemployed people.

In conclusion, a perfect society has to have good infrastructures and services as well as sufficient job vacancy. Then, this situation can be built by paying tax, obeying the policy, and creating the work-fields by entrepreneurs.

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Sample 2

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Every individual tries to live in a society which is perfect in every aspect, but they are not aware of what a perfect environment is? In my opinion the honesty and an attitude to help everyone among individuals are the key elements of an ideal society in this contemporary era. Furthermore, the approach to achieve a perfect community to live is to follow the rules set by the government.

The ideal habitat to live in is dependent on the inhabitants. Hence, they must be a helping hand to each other as every individual needs the help of the other person to grow. They must be acceptable to each other, regardless of their huge differences. In addition, honesty is needed for the prosperity of the general population. The inhabitants must show their loyalty to each other and the country. As an illustration, the locals must not support any international invasion of their area and they must discourage these evil intentions by encouraging their army. Therefore, the motivation to help others and the loyalty among people are the key elements of an ideal surrounding.

The governing bodies must play their powerful role in setting an example of an ideal community by implementing the strict rules and regulations for people to follow. The people can play their roles by obeying the rules set by the higher authorities. For instance, the government of Pakistan passed a bill in the national assembly which states that no one is allowed to sell or export drugs. Due to this policy which is followed by the masses, Pakistan is considered as a drug free country. Hence, the combined efforts of the higher authorities and individuals can lead to formation of perfect societies.

To conclude, in my view, the intentions to help each other and the loyalty among people are the significant elements of an ideal society. Moreover, the people can work towards achieving such an environment by following rules implemented by the government.

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52

Some people believe that physical fitness of strong individuals and teams is the reason for most sports achievements. Others, however, think that mental attitude is more important. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

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People have different views about the key factors which lead to success in sports. In my opinion, both physical fitness and mental strength are critical for sports people to win.

On the one hand, athletes need to be strong and fit enough to compete with others. It is quite difficult to imagine that a runner, for instance, could take the lead in a Marathon race if he or she is overweight and weak. Without good stamina and a heavy built, sportsmen would be knocked down and get injured easily, which considerably reduces their likelihood of success in games. That is why most players are well-built and tall so that they can not only protect themselves from potential risks, but also win more chances in the collision.

On the other hand, whether an individual or a team has a stable state of mind or not also determines the final success in many sport events. Most athletic activities require high levels of perseverance and stability, and athletes need to be cool-headed and patient when they face a tough opponent. Only in this way are they better able to overcome difficulties or reverse the situation where they are at a disadvantage. There are plenty of classic cases in the sports world where the losing team turned the tide simply because their players refused to give up. Such positive outlook plays an important role in bringing the whole team together and helping them win the trophy in the end.

In conclusion, it seems to me that in order to survive the competition, it is essential for athletes to be physically strong. At the same time, having a stable and healthy mental attitude towards setbacks in games is also important to be successful.

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Sample 2

It is irrefutably true that achievements in the sports are the result of hard work, talent and strong commitment. However, some people say that physical fitness of sports players plays a key role to make massive accomplishments in the sports. By contrast, others claim mental attitude as the most salient factor behind sports achievements. Here, I would like to account for both sides with my own perception.

There are manifold points to endorse the former view. First and foremost, players with sound physical fitness can put their hundred percent efforts for the victory of their team. Their performance looks extraordinary when they are good at fitness. Taking a real life example into consideration, once in a cricket match, a top class batsman Hershel Gibbs was playing exceptionally well against India. His team was very close to victory but unfortunately, he got injured while running for a single. Later, he was unable to take singles and got out while playing a big shot. This turned his team to lose the final match by only two runs. Hence, achievements in the crucial matches and tournaments depend a lot on the physical fitness of best players. On the contrary, others have conflicting views.

They think that a robust mental attitude lays down the foundation of achievements in sports. Without strong mentality and positive attitude, making achievements seems a herculean task. To make it clear with one more real life example, South African cricket team is one of the best cricket teams in the world but they have never won any World Cup just because of less strong mental attitude or temperament. Many times, it is noticed by the cricket fans and experts that the players of South Africa are unable to bear the pressure of big games and become mentally depressed under pressure situations. This results in quick loss of wickets and game over for African team. Consequently, mentally strong players are much needed to win awards in the sports.

To recapitulate, undeniably, physical fitness has its own importance. However, in my opinion, a positive mind set up with the passion to win brings a massive success in sports.

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53

Many governments think that economic progress is their most important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

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People have different views about how governments should measure their countries’ progress. While economic progress is of course essential, I agree with those who believe that other measures of progress are just as important.

There are three key reasons why economic growth is seen as a fundamental goal for countries. Firstly, a healthy economy results in job creation, a high level of employment, and better salaries for all citizens. Secondly, economic progress ensures that more money is available for governments to spend on infrastructure and public services. For example, a government with higher revenues can invest in the country’s transport network, its education system and its hospitals. Finally, a strong economy can help a country’s standing on the global stage, in terms of its political influence and trading power.

However, I would argue that various other forms of progress are just as significant as the economic factors mentioned above. In particular, we should consider the area of social justice, human rights, equality and democracy itself. For example, the treatment of minority groups is often seen as a reflection of the moral standards and level of development of a society. Perhaps another key consideration when judging the progress of a modern country should be how well that country protects the natural environment, and whether it is moving towards environmental sustainability. Alternatively, the success of a nation could be measured by looking at the health, well-being and happiness of its residents.

In conclusion, the economy is obviously a key marker of a country’s success, but social, environmental and health criteria are equally significant.

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54

When cars and cyclists use the same roads, there are often problems. Why is this case? What are the solutions?

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Many issues arise when cyclists and motorists occupy the same streets. In my opinion, this is typically the fault of the former and the solutions all relate to better urban planning.

When cyclists and motorists come into conflict on roads it is often because the cyclist has a warped sense of priority. The general rule of thumb is that when cars have the right of way, they possess the option of yielding to cyclists. Otherwise, since cars travel much more quickly than bicycles, the cyclist must allow the car to pass by first so that roads do not become congested. Unfortunately, many people on bicycles attempt to travel as fast as cars without the maneuverability, safety, or breaking ability of cars. The result is that cars and cyclists are often at odds and wary of each other or, in extreme situations, collisions may result.

The solutions to ease these road conflicts are to better plan cities and wait for automobiles and cyclists to adapt to each other. A good example of this would be some European cities like Amsterdam where there is a large percentage of people traveling by bicycle. Urban planners have created bike lanes and altered roadways to mitigate potential conflicts. Over time, with clearer rules of engagement and better urban planning, instances of road rage and disagreement have declined. Adding bike lanes is only part of the solution; it is key for planners to develop innovative solutions for roundabouts, traffic lights, and bridges that allow for a seamless flow of traffic minus the veiled aggression that typically defines the car and bicycle relationship.

In conclusion, cars and bikes are in opposition because cyclists have overestimated their mode of travel and these issues can be remedied through better urban planning. Implementing these solutions is advisable since biking is such an environmental boon.

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55

More and more people are relying on the private car as their major means of transportation, Describe some of the problems over reliance on cars can cause, and suggest at least one possible solution. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

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Model Answer 1:

Over the last half century, the pace of change in the life of human beings has increased beyond our wildest expectations. This change has been driven by the booming breakthrough in technology and science that resulted in significant changes in the methods of transportation. Private cars, as fundamental part of this era have been thought to be a contentious issue because of the problems caused by their dependence. Consequently, it is important to look for ways to tackle these problems.

Firstly, the number of private cars skyrocketed in most of the countries resulting in the growth of traffic congestion and traffic jams especially during the rush hours. For example, a recent study conducted in London has shown that the number of traffic jams almost doubled in the last year due to increased number of private motor vehicles. In addition, the prospects of air pollution caused by the increasing number of motor vehicles are quite alarming, especially, in big cities such as Cairo and Alexandria in Egypt. Furthermore, people’s preference to use private cars even for short distances significantly reduces the time they walk every day. Therefore, this will have negative impacts on their fitness and their public health.

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Model Answer 2

Nowadays, the usage of own means of transport is very common in the modern societies. It creates the problem of traffic congestion and pollution all over the world. However, the use of public transport is one of the possible solutions to deal with this issue.

Firstly, overuse of private cars leads to traffic congestion. Every person has their own car, which means creating a lot of traffic. For instance, in metro cities, it is often seen that there is traffic jam more than an hour and people are blowing the horns, thus worsening the situation. Ultimately, all this cause frustration and stress for the people who cannot reach at their workplaces in due time. Moreover, the sound and environmental pollutions are increasing.

Secondly, more motor vehicles mean more pollution. The harmful gases exhausted from the vehicle results in air pollution and leads to various health problems For example respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and so on. Moreover, ozone layer depletion as a consequence of pollution can cause skin problems.

The possible solution to these problems is to maximise the use of public transport. The government should aware the people to use public transport and put emphasis to legally control the private transportation. Furthermore, the use of public transport also saves the expenditure which we spend on buying own means of transportation.

To conclude, traffic congestion and pollution are the arising problems of extensive use of private means of transportation. Nevertheless, the use of public transport is the one way to resolve the problems. Both Government and individual should come forward to tackle this issue and make their place better to live.

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Model Answer 3

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In today’s modern world, the number of private cars is increasing tremendously following the development of technology.  It, inevitably, causes many unanticipated negative consequences on people’s lives due to the overreliance on their cars even for a short distance journey. Therefore, it is important for us to establish the possible side effects on our lives and also the effective measures to cope with this problem.

Admittedly, there are a number of unwanted negative impacts of overuse of private cars. To begin, the physical strength of people will decline over the years and it becomes more noticeable in the late adulthood. People nowadays are too dependent on their own vehicles which cause them to have limited time to exercise so as to maintain good health. Thus, it is not uncommon that many of them to fall in sick easily, especially the children who are vulnerable to diseases. Furthermore, with the increasing number of private cars, traffic problems may become more severe in big cities it may also cause air pollution. People have to spend more time while travelling from one place to another due to heavy traffic jam. In addition, air pollution may have side effects on people’s health when they inhale the unfiltered exhaust gases from vehicles.

Nevertheless, there are tons of ways which could prove useful and effective in curbing this problem. Firstly, city inhabitants should strive to reduce their dependency on cars. To illustrate, they can choose to brisk walk to the shops nearby whenever they need to buy groceries without driving. It is indirectly giving a valuable opportunity for them to exercise so as to rebuild their bodies and regain health. Besides, it is advisable for the government to promote car pool. It is proven to be one of the effective ways to solve this problem, not only it will reduce the traffic problems which they are now facing every day in a city, but also reduce the exposal of waste effluents from the cars. Sooner or later, they will be able to live healthily in the near future.

In conclusion, there are several unanticipated problems that are caused by overreliance on private cars, however, there are numerous effective ways to tackle this problem. I believe the citizens of our nation will be free from the negative side effects of this problem one day provided every individual cooperates and practice the stated ways.

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Model Answer 4

Usages of private vehicles as the main transportation media is rife and has grown abundantly among citizens. This reliance on private cars, somehow, can trigger several impacts, for instances, increasing traffic jam and elevating air pollution. These problems will be elaborated through the following paragraphs.

Traffic jam is considered as the impact of an imbalanced capacity of roads towards the number of cars and other means of transportation. As vehicle and other commuter lines grow significantly, moreover, when people tend to use their personal cars which obviously increase the quantity of vehicle on road, the road cannot provide fair space to allow all cars running smoothly. As a result, people have to encounter the traffic jam.

Despite traffic jam, air pollution also becomes classic problem of car growth. The higher the rate of cars operated, the higher the amount of residual fume produced by motor activities. This phenomenon can elevate the amount of CO2 in the air which contributes major pollutant in the air pollution and damage people’s health.

In my point of view, one of the solutions dealing with this traffic issue is by increasing tax payment for private cars and motorcycle. Imposing high tax for private vehicle users will affect their judgment in using their cars as they have to spend extra money to run their own vehicles. Whitehorse city, for example, has managed to give higher tax for personal car users and as the fact, citizen there prefer using public buses than private cars due to less cost paid for public bus transport.

All in all, reliance on private cars can improve traffic problems and pollution. Nevertheless, by implementing discretion of higher tax for personal car user, it can help coping with this problem.

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56

The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

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Nowadays, people use more private car, which leads to more cars on the road, heavy traffic jam and air pollution. These problems always happen especially in the cities. I agree with the way to solve this problem by encourage people to use public transportation instead of using private cars because it is the best and easy way that people can do.

Using public transportation saves a lot of money. Firstly, people do not have to buy their own cars. When it comes to prices, the fare for buses or taxis is cheaper than private cars when compared bus fare to the oil price. Accordingly, people do not have to spend lots of money on gas that they have to fill the tank. Also, they do not have to find a place for parking as well.

Moreover, using less private cars saves environment and people’s health as well. It causes less air pollution because carbon dioxide that released from cars is decreased. As all people know that carbon dioxide can harm people’s health, if less carbon dioxide release to the environment, people do not have to breathe polluted air inevitably. Furthermore, there will have no heavy traffic jam because people use more public transportation.

Even though it is a waste of time that people have to wait for a buses, taxis, subway or sky train, it will not take people a long time to reach their destination because public transportation nowadays are developed to be faster and more convenient for citizens.

Therefore, these are the reasons why I agree with the way to decrease congestion and air pollution by encourage people to use less private cars and turn to use more public transportation that government provided.

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57

Some people think that strict punishments for driving offences are the key to reducing traffic accidents. Others, however, believe that other measures would be more effective in improving road safety. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

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People have differing views with regard to the question of how to make our roads safer. In my view, both punishments and a range of other measures can be used together to promote better driving habits.

On the one hand, strict punishments can certainly help to encourage people to drive more safely. Penalties for dangerous drivers can act as a deterrent, meaning that people avoid repeating the same offence. There are various types of driving penalty, such as small fines, license suspension, driver awareness courses, and even prison sentences. The aim of these punishments is to show dangerous drivers that their actions have negative consequences. As a result, we would hope that drivers become more disciplined and alert, and that they follow the rules more carefully.

On the other hand, I believe that safe driving can be promoted in several different ways that do not punish drivers. Firstly, it is vitally important to educate people properly before they start to drive, and this could be done in schools or even as part of an extended or more difficult driving test. Secondly, more attention could be paid to safe road design. For example, signs can be used to warn people, speed bumps and road bends can be added to calm traffic, and speed cameras can help to deter people from driving too quickly. Finally, governments or local councils could reduce road accidents by investing in better public transport, which would mean that fewer people would need to travel by car.

In conclusion, while punishments can help to prevent bad driving, I believe that other road safety measures should also be introduced.

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58

Today many children spend a lot of time playing computer games and little time on sports. Why is it? Is it a positive or negative development?

Nowadays, we see that most of the children are busy playing computer games rather than engaging in any sports activities. The reason behind this situation is that personal computers are more affordable and a part of every household. Owing to this, children prefer to stay indoors and become engrossed in video games.

The main reason behind young ones’ addiction to computer games is that desktops and laptops are inexpensive and many houses own one. Due to this, children squander away time by playing computer games as the graphical content is impressive. Moreover, parents do not bother about the screen time because they will not be disturbed as long as their children are hooked to the machine. As a result, young people develop addiction to computers and do not favour playing sports. They feel outdoor activities are tiring and require enormous physical efforts.

Spending a considerable amount of time playing computer games instead of sports is not good for children. This habit has harmful effects on their mental and physical health. Prolonged screen exposure will cause vision related issues alongside obesity because it does not involve any body movements. Another potential problem is depression which will lead to cognitive imbalance. When children spend long hours on the computer, they become isolated from the society/their peers.

If a child is affected with such problems at an early age, their future is at stake. My neighbour’s child, for instance, is unable to concentrate on studies because of his addiction to computer games.

In conclusion, affordability in the recent times has enabled many families to own a computer at home. Children rarely play outside as they are infinitely bound to these machines. This is certainly a negative trend because computer games addiction has detrimental effects on a child’s physical and mental well-being.

Sample 2

Most of adolescent spend their maximum time on computer games and give minimum time to outdoor games because technical gadgets easily available in everywhere for playing. This easy will be discussed both pros and cons of the development in upcoming paragraphs.

To embark with, children are busy in their hectic schedule. This is because they do study then they have to do school work so that they cannot go outside and spend their spare time on computer games. Secondly, Parents do not allow going outside for play because crime rate increasing day by day. Every parent wants to keep secure and save. So they give more preference indoor games because in indoor offspring do not need any special person for their safety.

Nevertheless, computer games lead many problems related to health like obesity, week eyesight and so on. The excessive use of such games causes chubbiness because they are guild with these gadgets late night. They do not do any physically activities which create many problems themselves. Furthermore, due to these games offspring distract their study because such games very interesting to play so they give less preference to study. They may think study is boring and always think about those games. However, positive of these games cannot be ignored because with the help of this games children broaden their horizon of knowledge because that games are very worthwhile to enhance the vocabulary and get some good idea for their life . For example, puzzle and word making games are very advantageous when child play that games they have to use their mind to complete sentence so that they improve vocabulary.

To sum up, both games have equally importance. Thus, in my point of view, children should play outdoors games which are fruitful to live hale and hearty and stay away from disease.

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